Ken Fussichen's History Of The Day For
January 31st

Home Click on * for the link to the relevant chronology. New Date
314*St Silvester I begins his reign as Catholic Pope.Ref: 5
876*Charles becomes king of Italy.Ref: 5
1328*Capetian dynasty of France ends with death of French King Charles II.Ref: 10
1531 Kings Ferdinand of Austria/János Zápolyai of Hungary accept each other.Ref: 5
1560*Spanish king Philip II marries Elisabeth van Valois.Ref: 5
1596*Catholic League disjoins.Ref: 5
1609 Wisselbank of Amsterdam established.Ref: 5
1620*Virginia colony leaders write to the Virginia Company in England, asking for more orphaned apprentices for employment.Ref: 2
1627 Spanish government goes bankrupt.Ref: 5
1675*Cornelia/Dina Olfaarts found not guilty of witchcraft.Ref: 5
1696 Revolt of undertakers after funeral reforms (Amsterdam).Ref: 5
1752*The profession ceremony for Sister St. Martha Turpin was held at Ursuline Convent in New Orleans, LA. She was the first American-born woman to become a nun in the Catholic Church.Ref: 5
1786*The bulk of modern eastern and southern Ohio is surrendered to the whites by the Shawnee by a treaty imposed upon the Shawnee at Fort Finney.Ref: 61
1795*Wounded by the sharp criticism of his colleagues, Alexander Hamilton resigns his post as the Secretary of the Treasury.Ref: 3
1804*British Vice-Admiral William Bligh's fleet reaches Curaçao.Ref: 5
1842*John Tyler's daughter Elizabeth marries in the White House.Ref: 5
1847*Donner Party: Landrum Murphy dies. The First Relief, led by Aquilla Glover and Reason Tucker, leaves Sutter’s Fort.Ref: 28
1849*Corn Laws abolished in Britain.Ref: 5
1851*San Francisco Orphan's Asylum, the first in California, is founded.Ref: 5
1854 Dutch KNMI established (Royal Meteorological Institute).Ref: 5
1855*Western railroads blocked by snow.Ref: 5
1861*(and the 1st) Nancy Hanks Lincoln sees her stepson (Abraham) for the last time when he came to bid her farewell before going to the White House. (Ref) 
1861*State of Louisiana takes over US Mint at New Orleans.Ref: 5
1865*Congress proposes the 13th Amendment, abolishing slavery in America. (TWA, 1997)Ref: 95
1871*Millions of birds fly over western San Francisco, darken the sky.Ref: 5
1874*The James Gang robs the Little Rock Express outside Gads Hill MO of $22,000 in cash and gold.Ref: 52
1876*All Sioux Indians ordered onto reservations, commencing the Sioux Indian War.Ref: 10
1882*Great World Building fire on Park Row in New York City.Ref: 10
1885*C.D. Wright was appointed as the first Commissioner of Labor in the United States. A lofty job for a gentleman whose salary was $3,000. Of course, in 1885, you could buy a house for $3,000 and a cow.Ref: 4
1905*1st auto to exceed 100 mph (161 kph), A G MacDonald, Daytona Beach.Ref: 5
1905*Carroll Wright appointed first US Commissioner of Labor.Ref: 5
1906*Strongest instrumentally recorded earthquake, Colombia, 8.6 Richter.Ref: 5
1911*Congress passes resolution naming San Francisco as the site of the celebration of the opening of the Panama CanalRef: 5
1911 The German Reichstag exempts royal families from tax obligations.Ref: 2
1911*In Falcon, NC, the Fire-Baptized Holiness Church (FBHC) and the Pentecostal Holiness Church (PHC) officially merged. In 1915, the Tabernacle Pentecostal Church (TPC) joined the merger. In 1975, the name of this body officially became the International Pentecostal Holiness Church (IPHC).Ref: 5
1916*President Woodrow Wilson refuses the compromise on Lusitania reparations.Ref: 2
1916 Dutch Girl Guides form.Ref: 5
1918*The Soviets abandon the Julian calendar. The following day was Februray 14th on the Gregorian calendar.Ref: 17
1920*Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, at Howard University, incorporates.Ref: 5
1925*Premier Ahmed Zogu (Zogu I) becomes President of Albania.Ref: 5
1927 International allies military command in Germany disbands.Ref: 5
1928 Scotch tape first marketed by 3-M Company.Ref: 5
1929*Leon Trotsky expelled from Russia to Turkey.Ref: 5
1932*US railway unions accept 10% wage reduction.Ref: 5
1933*French government of Daladier takes power.Ref: 5
1933*Hitler promises parliamentary democracy.Ref: 5
1934*FDR devalues the dollar in relation to gold at $35 per ounce.Ref: 5
1935*30.5 cm (12.0") of rain falls, Quinault RS WA (state record).Ref: 5
1940*The first Social Security check is issued by the U.S. Government -- to Ida Fuller of Brattlesboro, VT. Her check number is 00-000-001 and is for $22.54.Ref: 3
1945*Robert Bacher reports to Oppenheimer that a Po-210/Be-9 implosion initiator (still to be designed) is possible.Ref: 91
1946 Yugoslavia adopts new constitution, becomes a federal republic.Ref: 5
1950*U.S. President Harry S. Truman publicly announces his decision to support the development of the hydrogen bomb.Ref: 3
1950*Paris protests the Soviet recognition of Ho Chi Minh's Democratic Republic of Vietnam.Ref: 2
1951*(Rosenberg) Grand jury indicts Rosenbergs, Sobell, David Greenglass, and Yakolev.Ref: 87
1952*Dutch Lutheran Church reunites after 1½ centuries.Ref: 5
1956*French government of Mollet forms.Ref: 5
1956*Juscelino Kubitschek becomes President of Brazil.Ref: 5
1957 Trans-Iranian oil pipe line finished.Ref: 5
1961*David Ben-Gurion resigns as premier of Israel.Ref: 5
1961 NATO secretary-General Paul-Henri Spaak says he'll resign.Ref: 5
1962*Samuel Gravely assumes command of destroyer escort "USS Falgout".Ref: 5
1962*General Charles P Cabell, USAF, ends term as deputy director of CIA.Ref: 5
1968*Record high barometric pressure (1083.8 mb, 32"), at Agata, USSR.Ref: 5
1968*Nauru (formerly Pleasant Island) declares independence from Australia.Ref: 5
1968*US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.Ref: 5
1969*Vice Admiral Rufus L Taylor, USN, ends term as deputy director of CIA.Ref: 5
1972 Military coup ousts civilian government of Ghana.Ref: 5
1972*Birenda, becomes leader of Nepal.Ref: 5
1973*Walter Buffington, retires after 48 years as a Xenia OH firefighter. (XDG, p 5B, 9/30/2003)Ref: 83
1977*Frenchman François Claustre freed, after 33 months as hostage in Chad.Ref: 5
1978 Israel turns 3 military outposts in West Bank into civilian settlements.Ref: 5
1981*Lech Walesa announces an accord in Poland, giving Saturdays off to laborers.Ref: 2
1982*10 Arabian oryx (extinct except in zoos) released in Oman.Ref: 5
1983*Wearing seatbelts in cars made compulsory in Britain.Ref: 10
1984*US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.Ref: 5
1985*The final Jeep, the workhorse vehicle that came home a hero from World War II, rolls off the assembly line at the AMC plant in Toledo, OH.Ref: 4
1985*South African President PW Botha offers to free Mandela if he denounces violence.Ref: 5
1987*United Steelworkers union ratified a concessionary contract with USX Corp.Ref: 5
1988*Barge sinks near Anacortes WA, spills 70,000 gallons of oil.Ref: 5
1990*McDonald's Corp. opened its first fast-food restaurant in Moscow.Ref: 70
1992*MTA raised tolls on most New York City NY bridges from $2.50 to $3.00.Ref: 5
1994*Dow Jones hits a record 3,978.36.Ref: 5
1999*Sinn Fein President Gerry Adams arrives in New York after being granted a 48-hour visa so that he could take part in a conference on Northern Ireland. (XDG, p 4A, 1/31/2004)Ref: 83
2000*Sam Sheppard's wrongful imprisonment suit begins. (Ref:Dayton Daily News, 01/30/00, p 6A) 
2000*Britain's most prolific serial killer, Dr. Harold Shipman, is sentenced to 15 life sentences for murder.Ref: 10
2001*A Scottish court sitting in the Netherlands convicted one Libyan and acquitted a second in the 1988 bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland.Ref: 70
2003*President Bush and British PM Tony Blair meet at the White House; Bush said he would welcome a second UN resolution on Iraq, but only if it led to the prompt disarming of Saddam Hussein. Pushing for a new resolution, Blair called confronting Iraq "a test of international community". (XDG, p 4A, 1/31/2004)Ref: 83
1779*Charles Messier adds M57 (Ring Nebula in Lyra) to his catalog.Ref: 5
1851*Gail Borden announces invention of evaporated milk.Ref: 5
1862*Telescope maker Alvin Clark discovers dwarf companion of Sirius.Ref: 5
1930*Lt. Ralph S. Barnaby of the U.S. Navy became the first glider pilot to have his craft released from a dirigible -- a large blimp -- at Lakehurst, NJ.Ref: 5
1948*Magnetic tape recorder developed by Wireway.Ref: 5
1955*RCA demonstrates first music synthesizer.Ref: 5
1958*US launches their 1st artificial satellite, Explorer 1; James van Allen discovers radiation belt.Ref: 5
1961*Ham was first primate in space (158 miles) aboard Mercury/Redstone 2Ref: 5
1961*USAF launches Samos spy satellite to replace U-2 flights.Ref: 5
1964*US report "Smoking & Health" connects smoking to lung cancer.Ref: 5
1966*Luna 9 - USSR Lunar Soft Lander landed on the lunar surface and retuned the first photographs from the surface.Ref: 40
1968*Apollo 14, piloted by astronauts Alan B. Shepard, Jr., Edgar D. Mitchell, and Stuart A. Roosa, is successfully launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida, on a manned mission to the moon.Ref: 3
1971*Astronauts Alan B. Shepard Jr., Edgar D. Mitchell and Stuart A. Roosa blasted off aboard Apollo 14 on a mission to the moon.Ref: 70
1972*US launches HEOS A-2 for interplanetary observations (396/244,998).Ref: 5
1986*Mary Lund of Minnesota, is first female recipient of an artificial heart.Ref: 5
1991*Robert Gibson flies record 27,040 feet altitude.Ref: 5
1998*STS 89 (Endeavour 12) lands.Ref: 5
1999*Researchers from the University of Alabama at Birmingham present what they called convincing proof that the AIDS virus originated in chimpanzees and spread to people in Africa. (XDG, p 4A, 1/31/2004)Ref: 83
1504*By treaty of Lyons, French cede Naples to Ferdinand of Aragon.Ref: 5
1578 Battle of Gembloers.Ref: 5
1863*The first black Civil War regiment, the South Carolina Volunteers, are mustered into US army. The name is later changed to the 33rd U.S. Colored Infantry.Ref: 5
1865*General Robert E. Lee is named General-in-Chief of all the Confederate armies.Ref: 70
1895*José Martí & others leave New York City NY for invasion of Spanish Cuba.Ref: 5
1901*Boer General John Smuts & De la Rey conqueror Mud river Transvaal.Ref: 5
1915*German U-boats sink two British steamers in the English Channel.Ref: 2
1915*First (German) poison gas attack, against the Russians at Bolimov.Ref: 5
1916*War College Division warns its civilian employees "to engage in no discussion whatever concerning the progress of the European War". 
1917*Germany resumes unlimited sub warfare, warning that all neutral ships that are in the war zone will be attacked.Ref: 2
1935*The Soviet premier tells Japan to get out of Manchuria.Ref: 2
1940*40 U boats sunk this month (111,000 ton).Ref: 5
1941*21 U boats sunk this month (127,000 ton).Ref: 5
1941*Anti-German demonstration in Haarlem Netherlands.Ref: 5
1942*Chrysler, Plymouth, and Studebaker retool for war.Ref: 3
1942*62 U boats sunk this month (327,000 ton).Ref: 5
1943*The Battle of Stalingrad ends as small groups of German soldiers of the Sixth Army surrender to the victorious Red Army forces.Ref: 2
1943*39 U boats sunk this month (203,100 ton).Ref: 5
1943*Chile breaks contact with Germany & Japan.Ref: 5
1944*U.S. troops under Vice Adm. Spruance land on Kwajalien atoll in the Marshall Islands.Ref: 2
1944*Operation-Overlord (D-Day) postponed until June.Ref: 5
1944*U-592 sunk off Ireland.Ref: 5
1945*US 4th Infantry division occupies Elcherrath.Ref: 5
1966*U.S. planes resume bombing of North Vietnam after a 37-day pause.Ref: 2
1991*Battle for Khafji in Saudi Arabia (ends after 3 days).Ref: 5
1999*In Somalia, a convoy of US soldiers opens fire on hundreds of Somali civilians outside a food distribution center, killing at least eight people. (XDG, p 4A, 1/31/2004)Ref: 83
1897*The final stage of the Marseille-Nice automobile race posed an unusual challenge: a steep slope that motorists had to climb at speed. It was the first speed hillclimb in auto-racing history. The uphill dash was won by M. Pary in a steam-powered DeDion-Bouton automobile.Ref: 3
1901*Winnipeg Victorias sweep Montréal Shamrocks in 2 for the Stanley Cup.Ref: 5
1920*Joe Malone, Québec Bulldogs, sets NHL record with 7 goals in a game against Toronto.Ref: 5
1927*National League President John Heydler rules Roger Hornsby can't hold stock in the Cardinals & play for the Giants.Ref: 5
1934 Jim Londos defeated Joe Savoldi in a one-fall match in Chicago, IL. One of the largest crowds to see a wrestling match (20,000 spectators) looked on.Ref: 4
1941*Joe Louis KOs Red Burman in 5 for heavyweight boxing title.Ref: 5
1950*Paul Pettit signed a contract with the Pittsburgh Pirates. He set a record for baseball bonuses when he signed to collect nearly $100,000 in bonuses and guarantees.Ref: 4
1952*Harry Heilmann & Paul Waner elected to Baseball Hall of Fame.Ref: 5
1953*New York, Cleveland & Boston retaliate at Bill Veeck, forcing the Browns to play afternoon games to avoid sharing TV revenues.Ref: 5
1959*Former Red Sox Joe Cronin signs a seven-year deal to become the American League president.Ref: 1
1961*Houston voters approve financing for a domed stadium removing the hurdle to gain a major league franchise.Ref: 1
1965*Pud Galvin elected to baseball Hall of Fame.Ref: 5
1971*Jake Beckley, Joe Kelley, Harry Hooper, Rube Marquard, Chick Hafey & Dave Bancroft & George Weiss elected to baseball Hall of Fame.Ref: 5
1971 US female Figure Skating championship won by Janet Lynn.Ref: 5
1971 US male Figure Skating championship won by John Misha Petkevich.Ref: 5
1975*UCLA wins NCAA basketball championship.Ref: 5
1977*Joe Sewell, Amos Rusie and Al Lopez are elected to the Hall of Fame by the Veterans committee.Ref: 1
1980*Astros sign free-agent second baseman Joe Morgan. Houston was the first major league team the two-time MVP played with before he was traded to the Reds and became a cog in the Big Red Machine .Ref: 1
1981 Gaetan Boucher skates world record 1000m (1 13.39).Ref: 5
1982*12th NFL Pro Bowl AFC beats NFC 16-13.Ref: 5
1982*32nd NBA All-Star Game East beats West 120-118 at New Jersey.Ref: 5
1982 Gustafson skates world record 10 km (14 26.59).Ref: 5
1982*Hollis Stacy wins LPGA Whirlpool Golf Championship of Deer Creek.Ref: 5
1982 US male Figure Skating championship won by Scott Hamilton.Ref: 5
1983*Veteran first baseman Tony Perez signs a one-year contract with the Phillies.Ref: 1
1984*36th NHL All-Star Game Wales beat Campbell 7-6 at New Jersey.Ref: 5
1988*Super Bowl XXII: Washington 42, Denver 10, at Jack Murphy Stadium in San Diego. Ref 
1990 The first ever all-sports daily "The National" begins publishing.Ref: 5
1990 Jushin "Thunder" Liger beats Naoki Sano to become New Japan IWGP champ.Ref: 5
1991*Nugget's Michael Adams becomes shortest NBAer to get a triple-double.Ref: 5
1992*Sportscaster Howard Cosell retires.Ref: 5
1993*Super Bowl XXVII: Dallas Cowboys 52, Buffalo Bills 17, at the Rose Bowl in Pasadena. Ref 
1993*81st Australian Men's Tennis Jim Courier beats Stefan Edberg (62 61 26 75).Ref: 5
1998*72nd Australian Women's Tennis Martina Hingis beats C Martinez (63 63).Ref: 5
1999*Super Bowl XXXIII: Denver Broncos 34, Atlanta Falcons 19, at Pro Player Stadium in Miami.Ref: 5
2000*Atlanta Braves pitcher John Rocker was suspended by baseball commissioner Bud Selig for disparaging foreigners, homosexuals and minorities in a Sports Illustrated interview.Ref: 70
2001*The Wall Street Journal quotes players Monte Irvin, Sal Yvars and Al Gettel admitting the team stole catchers' signs during the 1951 pennant race as the Giants overcame the Dodgers' 13 1/2-game lead. According to WSJ report, Bobby Thomson, whose three-run, ninth-inning homer in Game 3 of the NL playoffs won the pennant for the New York, did not, however, steal a sign before hitting his historic home run .Ref: 1
2002*Former Olympic gymnast Olga Korbut is arrested for shoplifting figs and other foods from a Publix near Atlanta, GA. Charges are dropped when Korbut agreed never to set foot in a Publix again. (Sports Illustrated, p 32, 4/22/2002) 
2003*In an effort to secure funding for a major re-design oft he 12-year old 'new' Comiskey Park, the White Sox announces the ballpark will now be known as U.S. Cellular Field. The 23-year deal with the wireless service provider , which will pay the White Sox $68 million, changes the name used for home by the south-siders since 1910.Ref: 1
2004*Quarterback John Elway and running back Barry Sanders are elected to the Pro Football Hall of Fame in their first year of eligibility. Also elected are defensive end Carl Eller and offensive tackle Bob Brown. (USA Today, p 4D, 2/02/2004)Ref: 13
1679 Jean-Baptiste Lully's opera "Bellérophon" premieres in Paris.Ref: 5
1817 Franz Grillparzer's "Die Ahnfrau" premieres in Vienna.Ref: 5
1861 Friedrich Hebbel's "Siegfrieds Tod" premieres in Weimar.Ref: 5
1893 "Westminster Gazette" begins publishing.Ref: 5
1901 Chekhov's "Three Sisters" opens at the Moscow Art Theater to poor reviews.Ref: 89
1904*Béla Bartók's symphony "Kossuth" premieres.Ref: 5
1920 First Ukrainian daily newspaper in US (New York City NY) begins publication.Ref: 5
1929 Erich Maria Remarque publishes "Im West nieces Neues" in Berlin.Ref: 5
1931*Philip Barry's "Tomorrow & Tomorrow" premieres in New York City NY.Ref: 5
1936 The radio show, "The Green Hornet", is introduced by its famous theme song, "The Flight of the Bumble Bee". The show is first heard on WXYZ radio in Detroit, MI.Ref: 4
1940*C Turney & J Horwin's "My Dear Children" premieres in New York City NY.Ref: 5
1948*J D Salinger's "A Perfect Day for Banana Fish" appears in NY.Ref: 5
1949*The first TV daytime soap opera, "These Are My Children," was broadcast from the NBC station in Chicago.Ref: 70
1957*Liz Taylor's 2nd divorce (Michael Wilding).Ref: 5
1958*"Jackpot Bowling" premieres on NBC with Leo Durocher as host.Ref: 5
1960*Julie Andrews, Henry Fonda, Rex Harrison and Jackie Gleason, appeared in a two-hour TV special titled, The Fabulous Fifties.Ref: 4
1960*Songwriter Adolph Green marries actress/singer Phyllis Newman in New York City NY.Ref: 5
1963*Tony Sheridan & the Beat Brothers record "What'd I Say" & "Ruby Baby".Ref: 5
1970*Grateful Dead members busted on LSD charges.Ref: 5
1971*"My Sweet Lord" by George Harrison hit #1 on UK pop chart.Ref: 5
1972*Aretha Franklin sings at Mahalia Jackson's funeral.Ref: 5
1975*John Lennon releases "#9 Dream".Ref: 5
1975*Barry Manilow's "Mandy" goes gold.Ref: 5
1976*"Love Rollercoaster" by Ohio Players hits #1.Ref: 5
1978*"Elvis The Legend Lives!" opens at Palace Theater New York City NY for 101 performances.Ref: 5
1981*"The Tide Is High" by Blondie hits #1.Ref: 5
1981*38th Golden Globes Ordinary People, Coal Miner's Daughter.Ref: 5
1982*Sandy Duncan of Tyler, Texas gives her final performance as "Peter Pan" in Los Angeles, CA. The actress completed 956 performances without missing a show. She flew a total of 261.5 miles while on stage.Ref: 4
1984*Edwin Newman retires from NBC News after 35 years with the network.Ref: 5
1985*John Fogerty, former leader of Creedence Clearwater Revival, returned to the A&M recording studios in Hollywood, CA to give his first ‘live’ performance in 14 years. Actually, Fogerty performed in a video called Rock and Roll Girls.Ref: 4
1985*"Harrigan 'n Hart" opens at Longacre Theater New York City NY for 5 performances.Ref: 5
1987*Madonna’s record, Open Your Heart, moved to the #2 spot on the pop charts (right behind At This Moment by Billy Vera and The Beaters). A week later, Open Your Heart became Madonna’s fifth #1 hit since 1983. She had 11 consecutive singles in the Top 10 -- the most for any female artist of the rock era.Ref: 4
1987*44th Golden Globes Platoon, Marlee Matlin win.Ref: 5
1993*"St Joan" opens at Lyceum Theater New York City NY for 49 performances.Ref: 5
1993*Super Bowl XXVII is the 16th highest rated non-series show with an audience of 45.1%.Ref: 34
1994*Barcelona opera theater "Gran Teatro del Liceo" burns down.Ref: 5
1517*Gioseffo Zarlino composer, is born.Ref: 5
1573*Ambrosius Metzger composer, is born.Ref: 5
1573*Giulio Cesare Monteverdi composer, is born.Ref: 5
1601*Pieter de Bloot Dutch landscape painter, is born.Ref: 5
1607*James Stanley 7th Earl of Derby, is born.Ref: 5
1612 Hendrik Casimir I count of Nassau-Dietz/mayor of Frisia, is born.Ref: 5
1614*Nicolas Saboly composer, is born.Ref: 5
1620*Georg F von Waldeck German commander-in-chief, is born.Ref: 5
1623*François-Xavier de Laval Montmorency, consecrated the first bishop of Québec Canada in 1674, is born.Ref: 5
1633*Nathaniel Crew English bishop (Durham), is born.Ref: 5
1734*Julien-Amable Mathieu composer, is born.Ref: 5
1741*Theodor Gotlieb von Hippel East Prussian author/mayor of Köningsberg, is born.Ref: 5
1750 Gerrit J Pijman Dutch minister of War (1798-1800, 1803-06), is born.Ref: 5
1759*François Devienne composer, is born.Ref: 5
1769*-Andre-Jacques Garnerin, French parachutist, is born.Ref: 70
1769*54 Andre-Jacques Garnerin 1/31/1769 8/18/1823 French parachutistRef: 70
1778*Franz Anton graaf von Kolowrat Austrian premier of Bohemia (1848), is born.Ref: 5
1784*Carl Wilhelm Henning composer, is born.Ref: 5
1785*Charles Green, English balloonist, is born.Ref: 17
1787*Louis Angely Germany, comedy writer (Sieben Mädchen in Uniform), is born.Ref: 5
1797*Franz Peter Schubert, Lichtenthal Austria, composer (Unfinished Symphony), is born in Vienna, Austria.Ref: 5
1798*Karl Gottlieb Reissiger composer, is born.Ref: 5
1802*Jan C J van Speijk Dutch naval hero, is born.Ref: 5
1804*József Bajza Hungarian author/poet/critic, is born.Ref: 5
1810*Daniel Ruggles Brigadier General (Confederate Army), died in 1897, is born.Ref: 5
1812*John Randolph Tucker Capt (Confederate Navy), died in 1883, is born.Ref: 5
1813*Samuel Sarphati Amsterdam, physician/pharmacist/social activist, is born.Ref: 5
1817*Antony Winkler Prins Dutch writer (Groiler Encyclopaedia), is born.Ref: 5
1818*William Raine Peck Brigadier General (Confederate Army), died in 1871, is born.Ref: 5
1830*James Gillespie Blaine West Brownsville PA, (Representative-R-ME 1863-76/Senator-R-ME 1876-81/Secretary of State 1889-92), is born.Ref: 5
1836*Henryk Szulc composer, is born.Ref: 5
1841*Sam Loyd, American puzzlemaker, is born.Ref: 70
1862*George Perkins, American insurance executive, is born.Ref: 70
1863*F Henri Berz French existentialist philosopher (Revue the Synthesis), is born.Ref: 5
1866*Emil Strauss Germany, writer (Naked Man), is born.Ref: 5
1866*Henry Forster cricketer (Oxford blue 1887-89, later Australian Governor-General), is born.Ref: 5
1868*Theodore William Richards chemist (atomic weights, Nobel-1914), is born.Ref: 5
1869*Henry graaf Carton de Wiart Belgian literary/premier (1920-21), is born.Ref: 5
1872*Zane Grey, dentist, American West novelist (Riders of the Purple Sage, Spirit of the Border), is born.Ref: 5
1877*Max Ettlinger German philosopher, is born.Ref: 5
1878 Willem J M van Eysinga Dutch international law jurist, is born.Ref: 5
1881*Irving Langmuir physical chemist/colloid researcher/inventor (tungsten filament lamp/Nobel 1932), is born.Ref: 5
1881*Joseph A Cushman US, palaentologist/foraminiferologist, is born.Ref: 5
1882 Josephus RH van Schaik Dutch lawyer/vice-premier, is born.Ref: 5
1884*Nicholas Joy Paris France, actor (Boss Lady), is born.Ref: 5
1885*Anna Pavlova, St Petersburg Russia, ballerina/choreographer, is born.Ref: 68
1886*Alfonso Lopez Colombia, statesman (President UN security council-1948), is born.Ref: 5
1890 Adolf Bach German language/sociologist (Deutsche Namenkunde), is born.Ref: 5
1891*Max Drischner composer, is born.Ref: 5
1892*Eddie Cantor (Iskowitz) ‘banjo eyes’: actor, singer: If You Knew Susie like I Know Susie, Alabamy Bound, Dinah, Ida, Makin’ Whoopee, Ma He’s Makin’ Eyes at Me; is born in New York City NY.Ref: 68
1893*Freya Stark English explorist/author, is born.Ref: 5
1894*Percy Helton NY, actor (Jail Busters, Harbor of Missing Men)Ref: 5
1901*Blaz Arnic composer, is born.Ref: 5
1901*Marie Luise Kaschnitz writer, is born.Ref: 5
1902*Tallulah Bankhead Huntsville AL, actress (Lifeboat, Die Die Darling), is born.Ref: 68
1902*Alva Myrdal Uppsala Sweden, diplomat (Nobel Peace Prize-1982), is born.Ref: 5
1902*Julian H Steward US anthropologist/professor, is born.Ref: 5
1902*Jean C M Picart le Doux France, carpet designer, is born.Ref: 5
1903*Gardner Cowles Iowa, publisher/founder (Look Magazine), is born.Ref: 5
1904*E van Ruller Dutch journalist/ARP-alderman/co-founder (Trouw), is born.Ref: 5
1904*Léon N H Jungschläger head of military intelligence (Netherlands-Indies), is born.Ref: 5
1905*John Henry O'Hara Pottsville PA, novelist (Butterfield 8, Pal Joey, Appointment at Samarra), is born.Ref: 5
1905*Anna Blaman [Johanna P Vrugt], Dutch writer (Wife & Friend), is born.Ref: 5
1905*Charles de Trooz Belgian literary (Le Magister et Ses Maîtres), is born.Ref: 5
1906*R W Bonham founder (International Braille Chess Association), is born.Ref: 5
1906*Benjamin Frankel composer, is born.Ref: 5
1908*René Simone Mathieu France, doubles tennis star (Wimbledon 1934), is born.Ref: 5
1909*Foley Newns British colonial administrator, is born.Ref: 5
1909*Miron Grindea literary editor, is born.Ref: 5
1910 Herbert Ashworth CEO (Nationwide Building Society), is born.Ref: 5
1911*A G Ogston president (Trinity College-Oxford), is born.Ref: 5
1911 Christina Foyle book seller, is born.Ref: 5
1913*Don Hutson NFL end (Packers), is born.Ref: 5
1913*Wayne Millner NFL end (Boston/Washington Redskins), is born.Ref: 5
1913*Hector Iglesias Villoud composer, is born.Ref: 5
1914*Carey Lofton Blountsville FL, actor (Skinner-Troubleshooters), is born.Ref: 5
1914*Jersey Joe Walcott (Arnold Cream), heavyweight boxing champ (1951-52), is born Merchantville NJ.Ref: 5
1914*Louis Osman architect/artist/goldsmith, is born.Ref: 5
1915*Bobby Hackett Providence RI, trumpeteer/orchestra leader (Air Time '57), is born.Ref: 5
1915*Thomas Merton France, Trappist monk/poet/essayist (7 Storey Mt), is born.Ref: 5
1915*Garry Moore [Thomas Garrison Morfit], Baltimore MD, TV host (Garry Moore Show, I've Got a Secret), is born.Ref: 5
1915 John Profumo president (Toynbee Hall), is born.Ref: 5
1915*William Crosbie artist, is born.Ref: 5
1915*Thomas Merton, American Catholic monk/poet, is born.Ref: 70
1916*Ciro D Crown premier of Dutch Antilles (1968-69), is born.Ref: 5
1916*Frank A Parker tennis champ (US Open-1944), is born.Ref: 5
1916 Violet Cane statistician, is born.Ref: 5
1917 Erich Geiringer General practitioner campaigner, is born.Ref: 5
1917*Jose Maceda composer, is born.Ref: 5
1919*Jackie Robinson (Baseball Hall of Famer: breaks baseball’s color barrier when Branch Rickey brought him up to the Dodgers in 1947) is born.Ref: 2
1919*Lord Lowry, is born.Ref: 5
1920*Patrick Heron painter, is born.Ref: 5
1920*Robert Hersant press baron, is born.Ref: 5
1920*Stewart L Udall St Johns AZ, US Secretary of Interior (1961-69), is born.Ref: 5
1921*Mario Lanza (Alfred Cocozza), Philadelphia PA, actor/singer (Great Caruso, Toast of New Orleans), is born.Ref: 3
1921*John Agar Chicago IL, actor (Fort Apache, Sands of Iwo Jima), is born.Ref: 5
1922*William Sylvester Oakland CA, actor (2001, Gorgo, Gemini Man), is born.Ref: 5
1922*Michael Wilford diplomat, is born.Ref: 5
1923*Carol Channing Seattle WA, actress (Gentlemen Prefer Blondes, Hello Dolly), is born.Ref: 68
1923*Joanne Dru Logan WV, actress (Guestward Ho, She Wore a Yellow Ribbon), is born.Ref: 5
1923*Eddie Ryder New York City NY, actor (Slick Jones-General Hospital), is born.Ref: 5
1923*Norman Mailer Pulitzer Prize-winning novelist: The Armies of the Night; Miami and the Siege of Chicago, The Executioner’s Song, The Naked and the Dead, An American Dream, is born.Ref: 4
1924 Robert Gatehouse former High Court judge, is born.Ref: 5
1924*Tengiz Abuladze filmmaker, is born.Ref: 5
1925*Benjamin Hooks civil rights leader, is born.Ref: 5
1925*Charles Aidman Frankfort IN, narrator (New Twilight Zone), is born.Ref: 5
1925*Fred Catherwood MP, is born.Ref: 5
1926*Jean Simmons London England, actress (Thorn Birds, Guys & Dolls), is born.Ref: 5
1926 Prunella Briance founder (National Childbirth Trust), is born.Ref: 5
1928*Chuck Willis rock vocalist (C C Rider), is born.Ref: 5
1928*Eric Ash rector (Imperial College of Science, Technology & Medicine), is born.Ref: 5
1928 Richard Buckley royal equerry, is born.Ref: 5
1928*Robert Clatworthy sculptor, is born.Ref: 5
1929*Rudolf Mossbauer Germany, physicist (Nobel 1961), is born.Ref: 5
1929*Jean Simmons actress: The Big Country, Elmer Gantry, The Robe, Spartacus, Great Expectations, The Thorn Birds, North and South, is born.Ref: 4
1930*Lynn Carlin Los Angeles CA, actress (Joan Hunter-James at 15), is born.Ref: 5
1930*Jo Bonnier Swedish auto racer: started in 104 Grand Prix races; is born.Ref: 4
1931*Christopher Chataway British MP/athlete (world record 5k), is born.Ref: 5
1931*Jean Burroughs educationalist, is born.Ref: 5
1931 Nicholas Gordon Lennox diplomat, is born.Ref: 5
1931*Ernie (Ernest) Banks Baseball Hall of Famer: Chicago Cubs [all-star: 1955-1962, 1965, 1967, 1969/NL Baseball Writer’s Award: 1958, 1959]; 512 home runs; over 40 in a single season five times; record five grand slams [1955], 47 home runs [1958] most ever hit by a shortstop, is born.Ref: 4
1932*Pieter Brattinga Dutch graphic artist, is born.Ref: 5
1932*Rick Hall country/R&B singer, is born.Ref: 5
1933*Joseph D Early (Representative-D-MA, 1975- ), is born.Ref: 5
1933 Walter Paulis mineworker/pilot/Dutch MP (CDA), is born.Ref: 5
1934*James (Grover) Franciscus, Clayton MO, actor (Mr Novak, Longstreet, Hunter), is born.Ref: 5
1934*Ron Weatherburn jazz pianist, is born.Ref: 5
1935*Oe Kenzaburo Japanese novelist (The Catch, A Personal Matter), is born.Ref: 5
1935*Bojidar Dimov composer, is born.Ref: 5
1936*Marvin Junior singer (Dells-Oh What a Night), is born.Ref: 5
1937*Suzanne Pleshette actress: The Bob Newhart Show, Oh God Book 2, The Birds, If It’s Tuesday This Must be Belgium, is born in New York City NY.Ref: 4
1937*Philip Glass Baltimore MD, composer (Einstein on the Beach), is born.Ref: 5
1937*Steve Karmen Bronx NY, jingle writer (I Love NY, This Bud's for You), is born.Ref: 5
1938*Beatrix Wilhelmina Armgard queen of Netherlands (1980- ), is born.Ref: 5
1938*James G Watt Colorado, US Secretary of Interior (1981-83), is born.Ref: 5
1938*Ajip Rosidi Indonesian poet/writer (Madjalah Sunda, Pesta), is born.Ref: 5
1940*Jessica Walter Brooklyn NY, actress (Play Misty For Me, Amy Prentiss), is born.Ref: 5
1940*Stuart Margolin Davenport IA, actor (Love American Style), is born.Ref: 5
1941*Richard A Gephardt (Representative-D-MO, 1977- ), is born.Ref: 68
1941*George S Mickelson (Governor-SD), is born.Ref: 5
1941*Sharon Miller LPGA golfer, is born.Ref: 5
1942*Derek Jarman actor/director (Angelic Conversation, Edward II), is born.Ref: 5
1942*Gerald Chamberlain jazz musician, is born.Ref: 5
1944*Anton Korteweg Dutch poet (For the Good Order), is born.Ref: 5
1944*Charley Musselwhite blues musician (Stand Back, Louisiana Fog), is born.Ref: 5
1944*Eugene Terre Blanche South African leader of Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging, is born.Ref: 5
1945*Noah Creshevsky composer, is born.Ref: 5
1946*Glynn Turman New York City NY, actor (Lew-Peyton Place, Manimal, Centennial), is born.Ref: 5
1946*Jonathan Banks Washington DC, actor (Armed & Dangerous, Cold Steel), is born.Ref: 5
1946*Terry Kath rocker (Chicago-If You Leave Me Now), is born.Ref: 5
1947*(Lynn) Nolan Ryan baseball: pitcher: NY Mets [World Series: 1969], California Angels [all-star: 1972, 1973, 1975, 1977, 1979], Houston Astros [all-star: 1981, 1985], Texas Rangers [all-star: 1989]; record for career strike outs [5,714] and no-hitters [7], is born.Ref: 4
1947*Jim Nollman composer, is born.Ref: 5
1949*Carol Hawkins actress (Dialing for Dingbats), is born.Ref: 5
1951*Harry Casey [KC], rock vocalist (KC & Sunshine Band-Give It), is born.Ref: 5
1951*Phil Collins England, singer/drummer (Genesis-Against All Odds), is born.Ref: 5
1951*Phil Manzanera rock guitarist (Roxy Music-Let's Stick Together), is born.Ref: 5
1951*Presiley Baxendale British QC, is born.Ref: 5
1951*Larry McNeill basketball: Marquette Univ.Ref: 4
1952*Rosanne Musgrave headmistress (Blackheath HS), is born.Ref: 5
1953*Aart Mol Dutch bassist (Catapult), is born.Ref: 5
1954*Adrian Vandenberg Amsterdam Netherlands, rock guitarist (Whitesnake), is born.Ref: 5
1955*Virginia Ruzici Romania, tennis star, is born.Ref: 5
1956*Johnny Rotten [John Lydon], rocker (Sex Pistols-God Save the Queen), is born.Ref: 5
1956*Lloyd Cole rocker, is born.Ref: 5
1956*Trevor A Manuel South African UDF/ANC-leader, is born.Ref: 5
1957*Brett "the Hitman" Hart Alberta Canada, WWF champion, is born.Ref: 5
1957*Shirley F Babashoff California, swimmer (Olympics-6 silver/2 gold-72, 76), is born.Ref: 5
1958*Rafael Santana shortstop (New York Mets, New York Yankees), is born.Ref: 5
1958*Tom Schuman pianist (Spyro Gyra-Morning Dance), is born.Ref: 5
1959*Anthony LaPaglia actor (Murder One), is born.Ref: 5
1959*Kelly Lynch actress (Drugstore Cowboy), is born.Ref: 5
1960*Elaine Roque Santa Monica CA, beach volleyballer (Olympics-96), is born.Ref: 5
1961*Lloyd Cole guitar/vocals (& the Commotions-Rattlesnakes), is born.Ref: 5
1963*(Long Island) Scott Ian Rosenfeld, Bayside NY, rocker (Anthrax-Protest & Survive), is born.Ref: 5
1963*John Dye Amory MA, actor (Andrew-Touched by an Angel), is born.Ref: 5
1964*Oto Hascak hockey forward (Team Slovakia 1998), is born.Ref: 5
1964*Remi Bouchard Lasalle Québec Canada, Canadian Tour golfer (1989 India Open), is born.Ref: 5
1964*Sharon Cain San Antonio TX, team handball center back (Olympics-1996), is born.Ref: 5
1965*Bianca Yasmin Salahshourian Fairfield CT, Miss Connecticut-America (1990), is born.Ref: 5
1965*Adam Johnson Portland OR, beach volleyballer (Olympics-96), is born.Ref: 5
1965*Bobby Dollas Montréal Québec Canada, NHL defenseman (Anaheim Mighty Ducks), is born.Ref: 5
1965*Kim Clarke Tulsa OK, team handball back court (Olympics-88, 92, 96), is born.Ref: 5
1965*René Trost Dutch soccer player (Roda JC), is born.Ref: 5
1966*Al Jaworsky [Alan Doughty], pop bassist (Jesus Jones), is born.Ref: 5
1966*Charles Dimry NFL cornerback (Tampa Bay Buccaneers, Philadelphia Eagles), is born.Ref: 5
1966*Jamie Taras CFL guard (British Columbia Lions), is born.Ref: 5
1968*Doug Pederson NFL quarterback (Green Bay Packers-Super Bowl XXXI), is born.Ref: 5
1968*Michael Sinclair NFL defensive end (Seattle Seahawks), is born.Ref: 5
1968*Steve Phoenix US baseball pitcher (Oakland Athletics), is born.Ref: 5
1969*Mathew Pallister Sydney New South Wales Australia, canoeist (Olympics-96), is born.Ref: 5
1970*Greg Skrepenak NFL tackle (Oakland Raiders, Carolina Panthers), is born.Ref: 5
1970*Rachel Jean Marteen Atlanta GA, playmate (August 1995), is born.Ref: 5
1970*Travis Hannah NFL/WLAF receiver (Houston Oilers, Frankfurt Galaxy), is born.Ref: 5
1971*Brandi Sherwood Miss Idaho-USA (1997, 2nd, succeeded Brook Lee), is born.Ref: 5
1971*Corey Holliday NFL wide receiver (Pittsburgh Steelers), is born.Ref: 5
1971*Minnie Driver actress (Good Will Hunting), is born.Ref: 5
1972*Ben Cavil guard (Baltimore Ravens), is born.Ref: 5
1972*Fritz Fequiere WLAF guard (Barcelona Dragons, London Monarchs), is born.Ref: 5
1972*Marvin Coleman CFL defensive back (Calgary Stampeders), is born.Ref: 5
1972*Pulu Poumele guard (San Diego Chargers), is born.Ref: 5
1972*Reinier Robbemond Dutch soccer player (Dordrecht '90), is born.Ref: 5
1973*Latario Rachal WLAF/NFL receiver (Amsterdam Admirals, San Diego Chargers), is born.Ref: 5
1974*Bob Mulder soccer player (Appingedam, FC Groningen), is born.Ref: 5
1974*Lorenzo Styles NFL linebacker (Atlanta Falcons), is born.Ref: 5
1974*Othella Harrington NBA forward (Houston Rockets), is born.Ref: 5
1974*Pavi Sald ice hockey defenseman (Finland, Olympics-98), is born.Ref: 5
1974*Tory Toogood Australian rower (Olympics-96), is born.Ref: 5
1975*Kenard Lang defensive end (Washington Redskins), is born.Ref: 5
1977*Naomi Darrell Miss Bermuda-Universe (1997), is born.Ref: 5
1981*Justin Timberlake singer: group: ’N Sync: I Want You Back, Tearin’ Up My Heart, Merry Christmas, Happy Holiday, God Must Have Spent A Little More Time On You, I Drive Myself Crazy, Music of My Heart, is born.Ref: 4
1985*Andrew Giuliani son of Rudy (Mayor-R-NYC, 1994-2002)Ref: 5
1561*Menno Simonsz Dutch priest/vicar (Foundation Book), dies.Ref: 5
1580*Hendrik Portuguese cardinal/epilepticus/regent (1578-80), dies.Ref: 5
1606*Guy Fawkes, 35, convicted for his part in the "Gunpowder Plot" against the English Parliament and King James I, is executed (hanged, drawn and quartered).Ref: 70
1665*Johann Clauberg, French philosopher and theologian, dies at age 42.Ref: 70
1788*The Young Pretender, [Bonnie Prince], Charles Edward Stuart, dies at age 67Ref: 2
1788*Francesco Zannetti composer, dies at 50.Ref: 5
1828*Alexandros Ypsilanti Greek resistance fighter, dies at 35.Ref: 5
1861 Franciscus J van Vree Dutch Catholic foreman, dies at 53.Ref: 5
1864*Hamilton Rowan Gamble US judge/Governor of Missouri (1861-64), dies.Ref: 5
1881 Whistler's mother, dies.Ref: 10
1888*St. John Bosco, Italian priest; founded the Salesian Order, dies at age 72.Ref: 70
1891*Ernest Meissonier French painter/etcher/sculptor, dies at 75.Ref: 5
1900 Marquess of Queensberry, dies.Ref: 10
1919*Paul Lindau German playwright/critic (Estimate), dies at 79.Ref: 5
1922*Heinrich Reinhardt composer, dies at 56.Ref: 5
1933*John Galsworthy England, writer ("The Forsyte Saga", Nobel 1932), dies at 65.Ref: 5
1940*René "Sascha" Schickele German writer (Erbe am Rhein), dies at 56.Ref: 5
1942*SS Einsatzgruppe A reports a tally of 229,052 Jews killed.Ref: 35
1944 Jean Giraudoux dies.Ref: 10
1945*Private Eddie Slovik (age 25) becomes the 1st American executed for desertion since the Civil War.Ref: 5
1945*Al Blozis track: Georgetown University: NCAA, IC4A, AAU: shotput championships [1940-1942], IC4A discus champion [1940-1942]; football: New York Giants tackle [1942-1944]; dies.Ref: 4
1949*Henri de Vries [Hendricus Walterop], actor (Cleopatra), dies at 84.Ref: 5
1953*The channel ferry Princess Victoria with 174 passengers and crew members on board capsized and sank near Mew Island, off Belfast, Ireland, in the late afternoon. 
1953*A sudden ‘surge’, or wall of water, caused by a fierce storm and high spring tide, burst through the dikes and over the banks of low-lying coastal areas of eastern England, northern Belgium and southern Netherlands. 1,800 drowned in Belgium and the Netherlands. Thousands lost their homes, hundreds of animals died and farmland was unusable for years to come. The North Sea’s saltwater had left its mark. Only the receding waters of low tide had prevented the River Thames from flooding central London and killing thousands more.Ref: 4
1954*Florence Bates actress (Kismet, I Remember Mama), dies at 65.Ref: 5
1954*Edwin H Armstrong US radio inventor (FM), commits suicide at 63.Ref: 5
1955*Ford Lee Buck Washington, American jazz musician, dies at age 51.Ref: 5
1955*John R Mott US theologist/founder (YMCA, Nobel 1946), dies at 89.Ref: 5
1956*(Black Sox) George Weaver dies of a heart attack at age 66, in Chicago, IL. Former occupation – drugstore owner.Ref: 87
1956*Alan Alexander Milne English author (Winnie-the-Pooh), dies at age 74.Ref: 17
1960*Lowell Gilmore actor (Calcutta, Roadblock), dies at 53.Ref: 5
1961*Eugene Dennis, American Communist Party leader and labor organizer, dies at age 55.Ref: 70
1966*Elizabeth Patterson actress (Tall Story), dies at 90.Ref: 5
1966*Belgian state police kills 2 striking mine workers.Ref: 5
1967*Chief Thundercloud actor (Ambush, Colt 45, Typhoon), dies at 100.Ref: 5
1967*Otto Dibelius German theologian/bishop, dies at 86.Ref: 5
1969*Alexander Mikhaylovich Dzegelyonok composer, dies at 77.Ref: 5
1970*Slim Harpo [James Moore], rocker, dies at 28.Ref: 5
1972*Howard Barlow conductor (Voice of Firestone), dies at 79.Ref: 5
1972*Bir Bikram Shah Deva Mahendra king of Nepal (1955-72), dies at 51.Ref: 5
1972*Istvan Szelenyi composer, dies at 67.Ref: 5
1973*Ragnar Frisch Norwegian economist (Nobel 1969), dies at 77.Ref: 5
1974*Glenn Morris olympian/actor (Tarzan's Revenge), dies at 61.Ref: 5
1974*Harry Baum actor (Crime & Punishment), dies at 58.Ref: 5
1974*Paul Haesaerts Flemish architect/painter (Flandre), dies at 72.Ref: 5
1974*Roger Pryor actor (Lady by Choice), dies at 72.Ref: 5
1974*Samuel Goldwyn (Schmuel Gelbfisz), Polish/English/US film magnate (MGM), dies at 91.Ref: 5
1976*Ernesto Miranda, famous from the Supreme Court ruling on Miranda vs. Arizona is stabbed to death.Ref: 2
1980*Police storm occupied Spanish embassy in Guatemala City, killing 41.Ref: 5
1981*Cozy (William Randolph) Cole musician: drums: played w/Cab Calloway, Louie Armstrong; dies.Ref: 4
1987*Yves Allégret, French director ("Such a Lovely Tiny Beach"), dies at 79.Ref: 5
1989*Jack Douglas humorist (My Brother Was an Only Child), dies at 80.Ref: 5
1989*Yasushi Akutagawa composer, dies at 63.Ref: 5
1992*Mel Hein NFLer (New York Giants), dies at 82.Ref: 5
1992*Wim van Heumen field hockey coach (Netherlands), dies at 63.Ref: 5
1994*Pierre Boulle French writer (Executioner), dies at 81.Ref: 5
1995*George Abbott, American playwright, director and producer (Three Men on a Horse, Damn Yankees), dies at 105.Ref: 4
1995*James Johnson English MP (Labour, 1950-83), dies at 86.Ref: 5
1996*Gustave Solomon mathematician, dies at 65.Ref: 5
1997*Eve Lister actress/singer (No Limit, Hyde Park), dies at 84Ref: 5
2000*An Alaska Airlines jet plunged into the ocean off Southern CA on a flight from Mexico to San Francisco, killing all 88 people on board.Ref: 70
2000*Si (Simon) Zentner bandleader, trombonist: Boyd Raeburn Orchestra; dies.Ref: 4
2002*Retired Col Francis Gabreski, the fighter pilot who recorded 37.5 kills, known as America's Greatest Living Ace, dies at age 83. (XDG, p 8A, 1/01/2003)Ref: 83

Last Update: October 27th, 2005
© 2000-2005   Kenneth Fussichen