Ken Fussichen's History Of The Day For
May 23rd

Home Click on * for the link to the relevant chronology. New Date
1059*Henri I crowns his son compassionate King Philip I of France.Ref: 5
1275*King Edward I of England orders cessation of persecution of French Jews.Ref: 5
1420*Jews of Syria & Austria expelled.Ref: 5
1421*Jews of Austria imprisoned & expelled.Ref: 5
1493 King Charles VIII & Maximilian I of Austria signs Peace of Senlis.Ref: 5
1533*The marriage of England's King Henry VIII to Catherine of Aragon was declared null and void.Ref: 70
1536*Pope Paul III installs Portugese inquisition.Ref: 5
1544 German emperor Charles V recognizes king Christian III of Denmark.Ref: 5
1555*Giampietro Caraffa elected Pope Paul IV.Ref: 5
1611*Matthias von Habsburg chosen king of Bohemia.Ref: 5
1633*By French edict, only Catholic settlers were permitted permanent residence within the country known as New France (called "Canada" today), thus ending 30 years of attempted colonization by Huguenots (Protestants).Ref: 5
1644 Johan Mauritius van Nassau resigns as head of Civil rights activists.Ref: 5
1647 Willem II sworn in as viceroy of Holland.Ref: 5
1660*King Charles II returns from exile sails from Scheveningen to England.Ref: 5
1667*King Afonso VI of Portugal flees.Ref: 5
1692*(Salem Witch Trials) An arrest warrant is issued for John and Elizabeth Proctor's son, Benjamin. Susannah Sheldon testifies that a dead man, Joseph Rabson, appeared to her and stated that Philip English had murdered him.Ref: 21
1774*Chestertown tea party occurs (tea dumped into Chester River).Ref: 5
1777*Shawnee under Black Fish attack Boonesborough KY again. Daniel Boone is present, but injured. This is Simon Kenton's first hand-to-hand battle with Indians.Ref: 58
1788*(new state) South Carolina becomes the eighth state to ratify US Constitution.Ref: 2
1827*The first nursery school in the United States was established in NY City. The school was developed “to relieve parents of the laboring classes from the care of their children ... offering the children protection from weather, from idleness and contamination of evil example.” Yes, it actually meant that mommies and daddies who worked could drop the kiddies off for a truly fun, educational experience with little to fear. Plus, the youngsters got milk and cookies too!Ref: 4
1844 Declaration of the Báb (Bahá'í festival) ('Azamat 7, 1).Ref: 5
1853*Buenos Aires gains independence from Argentina (reunited 1859).Ref: 5
1865*After the Civil War a two-day victory parade is held in Washington along Pennsylvania Ave. to help boost the Nation's morale.Ref: 5
1865*Flag flown at full staff over White House, first time since Lincoln shot.Ref: 5
1873*Canada's North West Mounted Police Force (RCMPF) forms.Ref: 5
1873*Postal cards sold in San Fransisco for first time.Ref: 5
1878*Attorney John Henry Smyth named minister to Liberia.Ref: 5
1879*Iowa State College, located in Ames, IA, established the first veterinary school in the U.S.Ref: 4
1882*6" of snow falls in eastern Iowa.Ref: 5
1887*First transcontinental train arrives in Vancouver British Columbia.Ref: 5
1894*William Love hosts ground breaking ceremonies for Love Canal.Ref: 5
1900*Civil War hero Sgt. William H. Carney becomes the first African American to receive the Medal of Honor, thirty-seven years after the Battle of Fort Wagner. Writings of an African-American Medal of Honor recipient.Ref: 2
1901*American forces capture Filipino rebel leader Emilio Aguinaldo.Ref: 2
1901*Ottawa Mint Act receives Royal Assent.Ref: 5
1903*First automobile trip across US from San Fransisco to NY, ended April 1.Ref: 5
1903*First direct primary election law in US adopted, by Wisconsin.Ref: 5
1903 Paris and Rome linked by telephone for the first time.Ref: 10
1908*Dirigible explodes over San Fransisco Bay, 16 passengers fall, none die.Ref: 5
1908*Part of the Great White Fleet arrives in Puget Sound WA.Ref: 5
1911*NY Public Library building at 5th Avenue is dedicated by President Taft.Ref: 5
1918 King Oil/Shell refinery on Curaçao officially opens.Ref: 5
1920*Pope Benedictus XV publishes encyclical Pacem Dei.Ref: 5
1923*First flight of Sabena: Brussel-Lympne, Great Britain.Ref: 5
1926*Lebanese constitution is established under French mandate.Ref: 5
1927*After his triumphant solo flight across Atlantic, Charles Lindbergh awarded French Legion of Honor.Ref: 10
1934*Frechette is found guilty of conspiring to harbor Dillinger and sentenced to two years at the federal prison in Milan, Michigan.Ref: 42
1934*(through the 25th) An avalanche occurs in Kwantung Province, China.Ref: 81
1939*British parliament plans to make Palestine independent by 1949.Ref: 5
1939*Dmitri Shostakovich appointed professor at conservatory of Leningrad.Ref: 5
1939*Hitler proclaims he wants to move into Poland.Ref: 5
1939*British decoration, George Cross, first presented.Ref: 5
1948 Ramat Rahel gateway to Jerusalem is repossessed by Israel.Ref: 5
1949*Federal Republic of [West] Germany proclaimed (Republic Day).Ref: 5
1949 Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin lifted the Berlin Blockade. It had taken 10 months and 18 days of a continuous airlift of goods by the United States to foil Stalin’s attempt at isolating Berlin from the outside world. The US kept more than 2.5 million Berliners in the Western sector of the German city from starvation and freezing ... supplying food, medicine, machinery, clothing and other necessities -- up to 13,000 tons per day. The airlift transormed West Berlin into a symbol of resistance to communism. During the blockade, the US and its allies delivered 2,325,809 tons of supplies, including 23 tons of oranges. Two thirds of the tonage was coal to provide heat during the brutally-cold 1948-49 winter. The round-the-clock airlift, registered 277,804 flights, and a loss of 78 airmen, killed in crashes and other accidents.Ref: 4
1953*Two Yetis sighted, Mt. EverestRef: 62
1956*Presbyterian Church begins accepting women ministers.Ref: 5
1956*World Trade Center dedicated in Ferry Building, San Fransisco.Ref: 5
1958 Mao Tse Tung starts "Great leap forward" movement in China.Ref: 5
1960*WRCA radio changes call letters back to WNBC (NYC).Ref: 5
1960*Israel announced it had captured former Nazi official Adolf Eichmann in Argentina. (Eichmann was tried in Israel, found guilty of crimes against humanity, and hanged in 1962.)Ref: 70
1962 OAS leader General Raoul Salan sentenced to life.Ref: 5
1965*Franz Jonas elected president of Austria.Ref: 5
1967 Government bans submarines near South Africa.Ref: 5
1969 Lauwerszee Dike in Holland closes.Ref: 5
1970*USSR performs nuclear test (underground).Ref: 5
1974*Great Britain performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.Ref: 5
1974*Italian Red Brigade officer Mario Sossi freed.Ref: 5
1977*Moluccan extremists hold 105 schoolchildren & 50 others hostage on a hijacked train in Netherlands, children released May 27, siege ends June 11.Ref: 5
1977*Supreme Court refuses to hear appeals of Watergate wrong doers H R Halderman, John Ehrlichman & John Mitchell.Ref: 5
1977 Benin adopts its constitution.Ref: 5
1978*General strike in Peru.Ref: 5
1979*West-Germany elects Karl Carstens president.Ref: 5
1981*Barcelona fascists take 200 people hostage.Ref: 5
1982*Pope John Paul II declares "Peerke" Donders divine.Ref: 5
1983 Radio Moscow announcer Vladimir Danchev praises Afghánistán Muslims standing up to Russia; he is removed from the air.Ref: 5
1986*US & West Europeans veto heavier sanctions against South Africa.Ref: 5
1987*Soviets announce they are giving up commercial whaling and sending fleet home.Ref: 10
1988*Maryland stops sale of cheap pistols on Jan 1, 1990.Ref: 5
1989*Lincoln Square in the Bronx is named.Ref: 5
1990*Dow Jones average hits a record 2,856.26.Ref: 5
1990*Cost of rescuing savings & loan failures is put at up to $130 billion.Ref: 5
1991*In a five-to-four vote, the US Supreme Court upheld regulations barring federally subsidized family planning clinics from discussing abortion with pregnant women, or from telling women where they could get abortions.Ref: 5
1992*The US and 4 former Soviet republics sign an agreement in Lisbon, Portugal to implement the START missle reduction program that had been agreed to by the Soviet Union before its dissolution. (XDG, p 4A, 5/23/2002)Ref: 83
1992*President Bush orders Coast Guard to intercept boats with Haitian refugees.Ref: 5
1994*Roman Herzog elected President of GermanyRef: 5
1995*The remains of the nine story Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City are demolished. (XDG, p 4A, 5/22/2000)Ref: 83
1996*The House approved, by a vote of 281-to-144, election-year legislation to raise the minimum wage by 90 cents an hour.Ref: 6
1997 Iranians elect a moderate president, Mohammad Khatami, over hard-liners in the ruling Muslim clergy.Ref: 70
1998*Official returns showed two convincing "yes" votes for the Northern Ireland peace accord in British-linked Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland.Ref: 6
2000*Two weeks before a US-Russia arms summit, presidential candidate George W. Bush said he would slash America's nuclear arsenal as part of a broad national security review that would call for a missile-defense system.Ref: 6
2001*The US Senate approves a $1.35T tax cut bill. (XDG, p 4A, 5/23/2002)Ref: 83
2003*(Columbia Shuttle) Retired Navy admiral Harold Gehman, says NASA could have launched another shuttle to rescue the Columbia astronauts if it had realized the severity of the wing damage. (USA Today, p 3A, 2/02/2004)Ref: 13
2003*Congress sent President Bush the third tax cut of his presidency -- a $330 billion package of rebates and lower rates for families and new breaks for businesses and investors.Ref: 70
1576*Tycho Brahe given Hveen Island to build Uraniborg Observatory.Ref: 5
1785*Benjamin Franklin announces his invention of bifocals.Ref: 2
1934*Wallace Carothers manufactures first nylon (polymeer 66).Ref: 5
1981*NASA launches Intelsat VRef: 5
1995*Java programming language, developed by Sun Microsystems, Palo Alto, CA (Harold 1997). Client-side, on-the-fly supplementary data processing can be performed using safe, downloadable micro-programs (applets).Ref: 75
1430*Joan of Arc is captured by Burgundians at Compiegne, who later sell her to the British.Ref: 5
1568 Battle at Heiligerlee: Dutch rebels beat Spanish, 100s killed.Ref: 5
1568 Adolf van Nassau German son of Willem the Rich, dies in battle at 27.Ref: 5
1618 2nd Defenestration of Prague; the beginning of the 30 Years War.Ref: 5
1706*The French are defeated at the Battle of Ramillies near the Belgian village of Ramillies-Offus, forcing them to withdraw from the Netherlands.Ref: 92
1861*Pro-Union and pro-Confederate forces clash in western Virginia.Ref: 2
1861*Virginia citizens vote 3 to 1 in favor of secession.Ref: 5
1861*3 fleeing slaves enter Fort Monroe VA.Ref: 5
1862*Confederate General "Stonewall" Jackson takes Front Royal, Virginia.Ref: 2
1864*Battle of Dallas GA.Ref: 5
1864*Union General Ulysses Grant attempts to outflank Confederate Robert E. Lee in the Battle of North Anna, Virginia, the first day of 3 days of fighting.Ref: 2
1898*First Philippine Expeditionary Troops sail from San FransiscoRef: 5
1901*US captures leader of Philippine rebels, Emilio Aguinaldo.Ref: 5
1915*Italy declares war on Austria-Hungary & Germany during WWI.Ref: 5
1916*Heavy battles at Fort Douaumont Verdun.Ref: 5
1917*Dutch 2nd Chamber okays 1908 conscription draft.Ref: 5
1918*German shells land on Paris. 
1940*First great dogfight between Spitfires.Ref: 5
1941*The German battleship Bismarck sights the British battelship Suffolk. The Bismarck tries to engage, the Suffolk avoids contact. 
1942*Police Chief Dullea ordered police, fire units and ambulances not to use sirens because of possible confusion with the air raid signals.Ref: 37
1943*826 Allied bombers attack Dortmund.Ref: 5
1944*American forces at Anzio launch a drive on Rome. 
1944*British/Canadian troops occupy Pontecorvo Italy.Ref: 5
1944*(dawn) In Italy, the 1st Canadian Corps begins an attack on the Hitler Line. 
1944*Operation-Buffalo: Allied jailbreak out Anzio-bridgehead.Ref: 5
1944*Chinese counter offensive at Hunan front.Ref: 5
1945*Winston Churchill resigns as British PM.Ref: 5
1945*German island of Helgoland in North Sea surrenders to British.Ref: 5
1945*British military police arrest Admiral Karl Doenitz.Ref: 5
1945*Lord Haw-Haw is arrested at Danish boundary.Ref: 5
1982*BBC warns Britain will bomb Argentina.Ref: 5
1991 Last Cubans troops leave AngolaRef: 5
1873*First Preakness: G Barbee aboard Survivor wins in 2:43.Ref: 5
1876*Boston’s Joe Borden pitched the very first no-hitter in National League history.Ref: 4
1883*Baseball game between one-armed and one-legged players.Ref: 5
1883*9th Kentucky Derby: William Donohue aboard Leonatus wins in 2:43.Ref: 5
1884*12th Preakness: S Fisher aboard Knight of Ellerslie wins in 2:39½.Ref: 5
1890*A National League record is set as New York and Pittsburgh combine to steal seventeen bases in a single game.Ref: 1
1901*Scoring nine runs with two outs in the ninth, the Indians defeat the Senators, 14-13.Ref: 1
1901*35th Belmont Stakes: H Spencer aboard Commando wins in 2:21.Ref: 5
1910*During the last inning in a game against Boston, Reds' Dode Paskert steals second base, third base as well as home plate.Ref: 1
1922*Harry Greb gives Gene Tunney his only professional boxing defeat.Ref: 5
1926*Hack Wilson is first to hit a homerun off Wrigley Field scoreboard.Ref: 5
1932*Sir Hubert Ferdinand Opperman sets 24 hour record of 860 miles, 367 yards.Ref: 5
1935*The first-ever scheduled major league night game is rained out in Cincinnati.Ref: 1
1935*Young track athlete Jesse Owens of Ohio State University breaks five world records and ties a sixth.Ref: 10
1941*Buddy Baer was disqualified at the beginning of the seventh round as Joe Louis defended his heavyweight boxing title for the 17th time. Baer’s manager refused to leave the ring when the round was ready to begin.Ref: 4
1941*Rudolf Harbig runs world record 1k (2:21.5).Ref: 5
1944*Polo Grounds host first NYC night game since 1941.Ref: 5
1944*Chicago University called it quits to sports when it announced plans to withdraw from the Big 10 Conference of the NCAA and all other athletic competition.Ref: 4
1945*The Cardinals trade three time 20-game winner Mort Cooper to the Braves for pitcher Red Barrett. Cooper was dissatisfied with his salary in St. Louis and had threaten to leave.Ref: 1
1948*Yankee Joe DiMaggio hits three consecutive HRs (first two off Bob Feller) as Yankees defeat Indians, 6-5.Ref: 1
1951*World Champion Chess Grandmaster Anatoly Karpov is born Zlatoust, Soviet Union. (Ref 
1953*79th Preakness: Eric Guerin aboard Native Dancer wins in 1:57.8.Ref: 5
1962*Joe Pepitone of the NY Yankees set a major-league baseball record by hitting two home runs in one inning. The rare feat lifted the Yankees past the KS City Athletics by a score of 13-7.Ref: 4
1962*The National Basketball Association agreed to plans to transfer the Philadelphia Warriors to San Francisco, CA. The team became the San Francisco Warriors (now the Golden State Warriors).Ref: 4
1963*NBC purchases 1963 AFL championship game TV rights for $926,000.Ref: 5
1964*Dale Greig runs female marathon world record (3:27:45).Ref: 5
1965*Met outfielder Ron Swoboda takes up his position wearing a batting helmet on his foot. After kicking the protective head gear it got stuck on his spikes, and manager Casey Stengel ordered the young player to go out to the field.Ref: 1
1965*Mickey Wright wins LPGA Dallas Civitan Golf Open.Ref: 5
1970*After a 17-16, 15-inning loss to Padres, Giants' manager Clyde King is fired and replaced by Charlie Fox. San Francisco is 4 games under .500, 19 -23, at the time of the dismissal.Ref: 1
1971*Kathy Whitworth wins LPGA Suzuki Golf Internationalionale.Ref: 5
1976*Amy Alcott wins '76 LPGA Golf Classic.Ref: 5
1978*American League approves transfer of Red Sox to Jean Yawkey for $15 million.Ref: 5
1980 ABC Masters Bowling Tournament won by Neil Burton.Ref: 5
1982 Colin Wilson rides a surfboard 294 miles.Ref: 5
1982*Cathy Morse wins LPGA Chrysler-Plymouth Charity Golf Classic.Ref: 5
1984*Tying an American League record, the Tigers win their 16th consecutive road game defeating the Angels, 4-2.Ref: 1
1989*Cleveland loses & drop to 21-22, this is the latest a sub .500 team is in first place (American League East).Ref: 5
1990*NY Yankees hit 6 homeruns to beat Minnesota Twins 12-0.Ref: 5
1991*In only his 15th major league start, Phillie hurler Tommy Greene no-hits the Expos, 2-0.Ref: 1
1991*San Diego Sockers win 4th consecutive Major Soccer League championship.Ref: 5
1992*NY Yankees play in their 4th straight extra inning game.Ref: 5
1993*Val Skinner wins LPGA Lady Keystone Golf Open.Ref: 5
1995*47th time opposing pitchers hit homeruns, K Foster (Cubs)/M Freeman (Rockies)Ref: 5
1998*Carl Pavano, making his major-league debut for the Expos, allows two runs one earned on three hits and strikes out six in the 3-2 win over the Phillies. The Southington, Connecticut native was acquired by Montreal in the Pedro Martinez trade with the Red Sox.Ref: 1
1999*Brady Anderson gets hit twice by a pitch in the same inning to set an American League record. The Oriole leadoff man scored each time as the Birds scored ten runs in first inning routing the Rangers, 16-5.Ref: 1
2000*Joining Babe Ruth and Ted Williams, Seattle's Rickey Henderson draws his 2,000th career walk becoming only the third player in baseball history to reach the milestone.Ref: 1
2002*Becoming the 14th player in major league history and the second player this month, Shawn Green hits four homers in a game. The Dodger right fielder's 6-for-6 performance in Milwaukee's Miller Park, which also includes a single and double, breaks Joe Adcock's 1954 major league mark for total bases by one with a total of 19.Ref: 1
1750 Carlo Goldoni's "Il Bugiardo" premieres in Mantua.Ref: 5
1921*"Shuffle Along" first black musical comedy, opens in NYC.Ref: 5
1922 The first debate to be heard on radio was broadcast on WJH in Washington, DC. The two debaters argued about the topic of Daylight Saving Time with the audience acting as the judge.Ref: 4
1922*Walt Disney incorporates his first film company Laugh-O-Gram Films.Ref: 5
1922*Abie’s Irish Rose, opened at the the Fulton Theatre in New York City. The play continued for 2,327 performances and numerous revivals as well. It is estimated that some 50,000,000 people have seen the play performed somewhere in the world.Ref: 4
1931*Whipsnade Zoo opens in Whipsnade Beds England.Ref: 5
1938*LIFE magazine’s cover pictured the actor Errol Flynn as a glamour boy.Ref: 4
1938*Singer Ray Eberle signed on as vocalist with the Glenn Miller Orchestra for $35 a week. Eberle’s first session with Miller included, Don’t Wake Up My Heart, for Brunswick Records.Ref: 4
1940*Frank Sinatra, The Pied Pipers (with Jo Stafford) and the Tommy Dorsey Orchestra recorded the sentimental classic, I’ll Never Smile Again, for Victor Records. The tune remains one of Sinatra’s best-remembered performances.Ref: 4
1943 In Dr Faustus, Serenus Zeitblom begins his biography of Adrian Leverkühn.Ref: 5
1947 PC Hooft prize forms for literature.Ref: 5
1951 Peter Ustinov's "Love of Four Colonels" premieres in London.Ref: 5
1953*Schools first use Cliff's Notes.Ref: 5
1959*"Party with Comden & Green" closes at John Golden NYC after 44 performances.Ref: 5
1960*Don and Phil, the Everly Brothers, enjoyed the day as their recording of Cathy’s Clown made it to number one on the hit music charts. The song stayed at number one for 5 weeks -- a big hit for the duo.Ref: 4
1960*"Finian's Rainbow" opens at 46th St Theater NYC for 12 performances.Ref: 5
1960*"Got A Girl" by The Four Preps hits #24.Ref: 5
1966*The Beatles release "Paperback Writer".Ref: 5
1968*Beatles open 2nd Apple Boutique at 161 New Kings Road, London.Ref: 5
1969*BBC orders 13 episodes of Monty Python's Flying Circus.Ref: 5
1969*The Who release the rock opera "Tommy".Ref: 5
1970*Grateful Dead's first perfomance outside of the US (England).Ref: 5
1971*Rock group Iron Butterfly disbands.Ref: 5
1975*Singer B.J. Thomas received a gold record for the single with the extremely long title, (Hey, Won’t You Play) Another Somebody Done Somebody Wrong Song.Ref: 4
1979*Rocker Tom Petty files chapter 11 bankruptcyRef: 5
1979 "The Kids Are Alright" premieres.Ref: 5
1989*3rd American Comedy Award: Paula Poundstone.Ref: 5
1989*Angela Visser, 22, of Holland, crowned 38th Miss Universe.Ref: 5
1994*Star Trek The Next Generation, finale airs this week in syndication.Ref: 5
1996*Fred Norris of the Howard Stern show changes his name legally to Eric.Ref: 5
1997*Mel Karmazin replaces Peter Lund as CEO of CBS TV.Ref: 5
1997*"King David" closes at New Amsterdam Theater NYC.Ref: 5
1598*Claude Mellan French engraver/cartoonist/painter is baptized.Ref: 5
1617 Elias Ashmole antiquary, is born.Ref: 5
1620*Pieter Neefs the Younger, Flemish painter, baptized, is born.Ref: 5
1644*Thomas Eisenhut composer, is born.Ref: 5
1696*Johann Caspar Vogler composer, is born.Ref: 5
1707*Carolus Linnaeus [Carl von Linné], Swedish botanist; created system for defining genera and species, is born.Ref: 2
1710*François-Gaspard Adam French sculptor (garden sculptures), is born.Ref: 5
1718*William Hunter, obstetrician/medal writer, is born.Ref: 5
1729*Giuseppe Parini Italian priest/poet (Il Giorno), is born.Ref: 5
1734*Franz Anton Mesmer physician: used hypnotism and magnetism in treatments; Mesmerism named after him, is born.Ref: 4
1735*Charles Joseph prince the Ligne, Belgian fieldmarshal/author, is born.Ref: 5
1737*Louis François Chambray composer, is born.Ref: 5
1741*Andrea Lucchesi composer, is born.Ref: 5
1753*Giovanni Battista Viotti violonist/composer, is born.Ref: 5
1754*Andrea Appiana Italian royal painter (Napoleon), is born.Ref: 5
1756*Nicolas-Joseph Hullmandel composer, is born.Ref: 5
1759*Antoinio da Silva Leite composer, is born.Ref: 5
1790*Jules-Sébastien-César Dumont d'Urville explorer, is born.Ref: 5
1794*Isaak-Ignaz Moscheles composer, is born.Ref: 5
1795*Charles Barry architect, is born.Ref: 5
1799*Thomas Hood, English poet/composer (Song of the Shirt), is born.Ref: 5
1810*Margaret Fuller writer/critic first pro book review column (New York Tribune), is born.Ref: 5
1812*Henri A Esquiros French poet/writer (Les Vierges Folles), is born.Ref: 5
1813*Mason Brayman Brevet Major General (Union volunteers), died in 1895, is born.Ref: 5
1820*James Buchanan Eads, engineer of the Eads Bridge in St. Louis, is born.Ref: 2
1824*Ambrose Everett Burnside, Major General (Union volunteers), is born.Ref: 5
1828*Edward Hitchcock America's first professor of physical ed (Amherst College), is born.Ref: 5
1832*Pieter van der Aa Leyden Holland, Dutch Indologist/geographer, is born.Ref: 5
1837*James Sanks Brisbin Brevet Major General (Union volunteers), died in 1892, is born.Ref: 5
1843*Pedro Miguel Marques y Garcia composer, is born.Ref: 5
1844 'Abdu'l-Bahá early Bahá'í leader ('Azamat 7, 1), is born.Ref: 5
1846*Arabella Mansfield (Belle Aurelia Babb) first woman admitted to legal profession in US, is born.Ref: 4
1848*Otto Lilienthal pioneer aviator, is born.Ref: 5
1848*Helmuth J L von Moltke German general/chief of staff (WWI), is born.Ref: 5
1849*Károly earl Khuen-Héderváry Premier of Hungary (1910-12), is born.Ref: 5
1851*Antoni Stolpe composer, is born.Ref: 5
1862*William "Dummy" Hoy professoressional baseball player who lived to 99, is born.Ref: 5
1862*Birth of Hermann Gunkel, the German Protestant biblical scholar who pioneered the analytical approach to understanding Scripture afterward known as "form criticism." Gunkel applied its formulas primarily to the Old Testament, in his commentaries on Genesis (1901) and on the Psalms (1926-28).Ref: 5
1864*Louis Glass composer, is born.Ref: 5
1866*Gustav Aschaffenburg German psychiatrist/criminalologist, is born.Ref: 5
1871*Sigurd Lie composer, is born.Ref: 5
1873*Leo Baeck, rabbi/president (World Union for Progressive Judaism), is born.Ref: 5
1875*Alfred P. Sloan, Jr., president and chairman of the board for General Motors, is born.Ref: 2
1882*James Gleason New York NY, writer/actor (Bishop's Wife, Flying Fool), is born.Ref: 5
1883*Douglas Fairbanks (Douglas Elton Ulman), Denver CO, actor (Zorro/3 Musketeers/Robin Hood), is born.Ref: 68
1886*Hermann Neiße writer, is born.Ref: 5
1888*Adrian Roland Holst Dutch poet (Raged & Tired), is born.Ref: 5
1889*Birth of Mary Susanne Edgar, a Canadian YWCA leader who wrote a number of hymns during her years of leading a Christian camping ministry with girls. Her best-remembered hymn: "God, Who Touchest Earth with Beauty."Ref: 5
1890*Herbert Marshall London, actor (Murder, Razor's Edge, Little Foxes), is born.Ref: 5
1890*Virginia Eames Fort Davis TX, entertainer, is born.Ref: 5
1891*Pär Lagerkvist Sweden, novelist/poet/dramatist (Barabbas, Nobel 1951), is born.Ref: 5
1898*Frank McHugh actor (Front Page, Gold Diggers 1935, Mighty Joe Young), is born.Ref: 5
1898 Joseph Hazen lawyer, is born.Ref: 5
1901*Edmund Rubbra Northampton England, composer (Morning Watch), is born.Ref: 5
1902*Mark Lothar composer, is born.Ref: 5
1903*Walter Reisch US, screenwriter (Ninotchka, Gaslight, Titanic), is born.Ref: 5
1906*Hellmuth Christian Wolff composer, is born.Ref: 5
1907*Kenneth Allen engineer, is born.Ref: 5
1907*Matthew Campbell British senior civil servant, is born.Ref: 5
1908*John Bardeen US, physicist (transistor, Nobel 1956, 1972), is born.Ref: 68
1908 Christian GK Baëta Togolese chairman (International Mission Council), is born.Ref: 5
1908*Max Abramovitz US architect (Lincoln Center, UN Building), is born.Ref: 5
1909 Edwin Arrowsmith diplomat, is born.Ref: 5
1910*Scatman (Benjamin Sherman) Crothers entertainer, actor: Petrocelli, Alfred Hitchcock Presents, Charlie’s Angels, Hill Street Blues, The Sins of Rachel Cade, Hello, Dolly!, One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest, Silver Streak, Bronco Billy, Twilight Zone: The Movie, is born in Terre Haute IN.Ref: 68
1910*Artie Shaw [Arthur Jacob Arshawsky] NY NY, bandleader (Come'on my House), is born.Ref: 5
1910*Margaret Wise Brown, American writer of children's books, is born.Ref: 70
1910*Franz Jozef Kline US expressionist painter, is born.Ref: 5
1910*Hugh Casson architect, is born.Ref: 5
1911*Boris Kremenliev composer, is born.Ref: 5
1911 Melvin M Payne president (National Geographic Society), is born.Ref: 5
1912 David Barran CEO (Midland Bank, England), is born.Ref: 5
1912*Jean Françaix Le Mans France, composer (Le Rui Nu), is born.Ref: 5
1912*Marius Goring Isle of Wight, actor (Herr Palitz-Holocaust), is born.Ref: 5
1912*Samuel Curran vice chancellor (Strathclyde University), is born.Ref: 5
1912*John Payne (actor: Miracle on 34th Street, The Razor’s Edge, Springtime in the Rockies, Tin Pan Alley, To the Shores of Tripoli) is born in Roanoke VA.Ref: 4
1913*Ian Graeme Major-General, is born.Ref: 5
1914 Alec Dickson founder (VSO), is born.Ref: 5
1914*Barbara Ward economist/writer (Only One Earth), is born.Ref: 5
1914*Leo Lerman actor/manager/critic (Dance Magazine), is born.Ref: 5
1914*Travis Kemp dancer/teacher, is born.Ref: 5
1915*Clyde Wiegand physicist, is born.Ref: 5
1916*Margaret Hayden Rector playwright (living legacy award 1995), is born.Ref: 5
1918*Bulent Arel composer, is born.Ref: 5
1918*Bumps Blackwell rocker, is born.Ref: 5
1919*Betty Garrett St Joseph MO, actress (Irene-All in the Family), is born.Ref: 5
1919*Robert Antonissen South African literary, is born.Ref: 5
1920*Helen O'Connell Lima OH, singer (Green Eyes, Amapola), is born.Ref: 5
1920*Sid Melton Brooklyn NY, actor (Alf-Green Acres, Charlie-Danny Thomas), is born.Ref: 5
1921*Humphrey Lyttelton jazz musician/actor (It's Great to Be Young), is born.Ref: 5
1921*James [Benjamin] Blish US/UK, sci-fi author (Hugo, Star Trek Reader), is born.Ref: 5
1921*Loren Tindall Oklahoma, actor (Meet Me on Broadway, Girl of Limberlost), is born.Ref: 5
1921*Montague Modlyn broadcaster, is born.Ref: 5
1921*Sanderson Temple circuit judge, is born.Ref: 5
1922*Dennis Compton author/crickleter, is born.Ref: 5
1923*Alicia de Larrocha Copenhagen Denmark, pianist (Orquesta Sinfonica), is born.Ref: 5
1924*Desmond Carrington British radio host (Jim-Calamity the Cow), is born.Ref: 5
1924*Michael McCrum master (Corpus Christi College Cambridge), is born.Ref: 5
1926*Birth of Wilbur Nelson, Christian broadcast personality and for many years the host of "The Morning Chapel Hour," a radio ministry originating in Paramount, California.Ref: 5
1928*Rosemary Clooney Maysville KY, singer/Coronet paper towels spokeswoman, is born.Ref: 5
1928*Jeannie Carson (Jean Shufflebottom) comedienne: Red Buttons Show; actress: Hey, Jeannie! [1956 TV Series: as Jeannie MacLennan], Rockets Galore!, Little Women [1958 TV], Search for Tomorrow [1951 TV soap: as Marcy Vincente]Ref: 4
1928*Nigel Davenport Cambridge England, actor (Without a Clue, Masada), is born.Ref: 5
1928*Nina Otkalenko USSR, 800 meter runner (9 world records), is born.Ref: 5
1929*Julian Euell jazz/studio musician: bass, is born.Ref: 4
1929*Joe Modise South African commandant of Umkhonto we Sizwe (1965- ), is born.Ref: 5
1929*Ulla Jacobson Swedish actress (One Summer of Happiness), is born.Ref: 5
1930*Richard Anuszkiewicz Erie PA, painter, is born.Ref: 5
1931*José Telles Da Conceiçao Brazil, high jumper (Olympics-bronze-1952), is born.Ref: 5
1931*Barbara Barrie (Berman), Chicago IL, actress (Breaking Away, Barney Miller), is born.Ref: 5
1932*James Lester MP, is born.Ref: 5
1932*John Lyons Cambridge England, Master (Trinity Hall), is born.Ref: 5
1932*Mary Fickett Bronxville NY, actress (Ruth Martin-All My Children), is born.Ref: 5
1933*Joan [Henrietta] Collins, actress: Dynasty, The Stud; appeared in Playboy at age 50; sister of writer, Jackie Collins, is born in London, England.Ref: 4
1933*Bruce A Peterson US test pilot (M2, HL-10), is born.Ref: 5
1933 Gerrit J M Braks Dutch minister of agriculture & land & fishing (CDA), is born.Ref: 5
1934*Robert Moog, inventor of the Moog Synthesizer, is born.Ref: 68
1934 Malcolm Gill deputy head (Bank for International Settlements), is born.Ref: 5
1935*Juliet Campbell British ambassador (to Luxembourg), is born.Ref: 5
1935 Lord Grenfell head of External affairs European office, world bank, is born.Ref: 5
1936*Charles Kimbrough actor (Murphy Brown), is born.Ref: 5
1936 Douglas John Gorman businessman, is born.Ref: 5
1936*Robert Sangster horse owner/trainer, is born.Ref: 5
1938*John R Miller (Representative-R-WA, 1985- ), is born.Ref: 5
1938*Peter Preston editor (Guardian), is born.Ref: 5
1939*Ron Stevens horse trainer, is born.Ref: 5
1941*Jackson Hill composer, is born.Ref: 5
1943*Lee (Andrew) May baseball: Cincinnati Reds [all-star: 1969, 1971/World Series: 1970], Houston Astros [all-star:1972], Baltimore Orioles [World Series: 1979], KC Royals, is born.Ref: 4
1943*General George Norman Johnson US singer (Down at the Beach Club), is born.Ref: 5
1943*John "Poli" Palmer rocker (Family), is born.Ref: 5
1943*John Newcombe Australia, tennis pro (Wimbledon 1967, 70, 71), is born.Ref: 5
1943 Lars-Ake Nilsson diplomat, is born.Ref: 5
1943*Peter Kenilorea PM Solomon Islands, is born.Ref: 5
1944*Bob Leduc hockey: WHA: Ottawa Nationals, Toronto Toros, is born.Ref: 4
1944*Giles Smith TV journalist, is born.Ref: 5
1944 Olga Maitland MP, is born.Ref: 5
1944*Ramon "Tiki" Fulwood US drummer (Funkadelic, Knee Deep), is born.Ref: 5
1944*John Newcombe, Australian tennis player, is born.Ref: 17
1945*Actress Lauren Chapin (of Father Knows Best) is born.Ref: 4
1945*Elliott Bernerd English broker/multi-millionaire, is born.Ref: 5
1945*Misty Morgan country keyboardist (duo with Jack Blanchard), is born.Ref: 5
1946*David Graham Australia’s golf champion: U.S. Open [1981], PGA [1979]Ref: 4
1946*Tom Dorris horse trainer, is born.Ref: 5
1947*Jane Kenyon, poet (Let Evening Come, Otherwise).Ref: 2
1947*Ann Hui director (Boat People), is born.Ref: 5
1947*Jonathan Pryce North Wales, stage actor (Miss Saigon), is born.Ref: 5
1948*Reggie (Reginald Leslie) Cleveland baseball: pitcher: St. Louis Cardinals, Boston Red Sox [World Series: 1975], Texas Rangers, Milwaukee Brewers, is born.Ref: 4
1949*Alan García Pérez President of Peru (1985-90), is born.Ref: 5
1950*Linda Thompson Memphis TN, actress (Hee Haw), is born.Ref: 5
1951*Anatoly Karpov, International Grandmaster Chess Champion, is born.Ref: 4
1951*Judy Rodman Riverside CA, country singer (Girls Ride Horses Too), is born.Ref: 5
1952*Middleweight boxing champion "Marvelous" Marvin Hagler is born in Newark NJ.Ref: 97
1952*Butch (Clarence Edward) Metzger baseball: pitcher: SF Giants [NL Rookie of the Year: 1974], SD Padres, SL Cardinals, NY Mets, is born.Ref: 4
1952*Deborah Adair actress (Tracey-Dynasty, Kate-Day of Our Life), is born.Ref: 5
1952*James Mankey rocker (Concrete Blonde), is born.Ref: 5
1954*"Marvelous" Marvin Hagler New Jersey, middleweight boxing champion (1982-83), is born.Ref: 5
1955*John Stevens MEP, is born.Ref: 5
1957*Jimmy McShane Pop singer (Baltimora-Tarzan Boy), is born.Ref: 5
1958*Drew Carey comedian, actor, producer, writer: The Drew Carey Show, Whose Line Is It Anyway?, is born. (TWA, 2002)Ref: 95
1958*Shelly West Cleveland OH, country singer (Red Hot, West by West), is born.Ref: 5
1958*Thomas Reiter Germany, cosmonaut (Soyuz TM-22), is born.Ref: 5
1959*Linden Ashby actor (Mortal Kombat), is born.Ref: 5
1959*Marcella Mesker Netherlands, tennis star, is born.Ref: 5
1960*Theo Vogelaars pop bassist (Tröckener Kecks/Paid Love), is born.Ref: 5
1961*Dave Babych Edmonton, NHL defenseman (Vancouver Canucks), is born.Ref: 5
1961*Kevin Romine baseball player, is born.Ref: 5
1962*Karen [Duff] Duffy New York NY, MTV VJ/actress (Meet Wally Sparks), is born.Ref: 5
1962*Keith Brantley Scott Air Force Base IL, marathoner (Olympics-96), is born.Ref: 5
1963*Mike Myers, Canada, comedian (SNL-Wayne's World), is born. (TWA, 1997)Ref: 95
1964*Kenny Gattison NBA forward (Orlando Magic), is born.Ref: 5
1964*Staci Greason Denver CO, actress (Isabella Toscando-Days of Our Lives), is born.Ref: 5
1965*James Hasty NFL cornerback (Kansas City Chiefs), is born.Ref: 5
1965*Lilian Drescher Venezuela, tennis star, is born.Ref: 5
1966*Gary Roberts North York, NHL left wing (Calgary Flames), is born.Ref: 5
1966*Helena Bonham Carter London, actress (Fort Worth, Howards End), is born.Ref: 5
1967*Craig John Monk Auckland New Zealand, finn class yachter (Olympics-96), is born.Ref: 5
1968*Daryl Hobbs NFL wide receiver (Oakland Raiders), is born.Ref: 5
1969*Pat Hurst San Leandro CA, LPGA golfer (1995 Rolex Rookie of the Year), is born.Ref: 5
1969*Ramon Caraballo baseball player, is born.Ref: 5
1970*Ricky Gutierrez Miami FL, infielder (Houston Astros), is born.Ref: 5
1971*Issac Booth NFL cornerback/safety (Cleveland Browns), is born.Ref: 5
1971*Joseph Rogers CFL receiver (Winnipeg Blue Bombers), is born.Ref: 5
1971*Marshall Boze San Manual AZ, pitcher (Milwaukee Brewers), is born.Ref: 5
1972*Isabelle Fijalkowski WNBA center/forward (Cleveland Rockers), is born.Ref: 5
1972*Marco van Hoogdalem Dutch soccer player (Roda JC), is born.Ref: 5
1972*Rene Ingoglia running back (Buffalo Bills), is born.Ref: 5
1972*Shannon Brown NFL defensive tackle (Atlanta Falcons), is born.Ref: 5
1973*Verna Vasquez Miss Universe-best swimsuit (Curacao, 1997), is born.Ref: 5
1974*Duane Clemons linebacker (Minnesota Vikings), is born.Ref: 5
1974*Jewel [Kilcher] St George UT, folk/rock vocalist (Pieces of You), is born.Ref: 5
1974*Kimber West Atlanta GA, playmate (Feb 1997), is born.Ref: 5
1975*Vincent Goossens soccer player (Dordrecht '90), is born.Ref: 5
1976*Kelly Marie Monaco Philadelphia PA, playmate (April, 1997), is born.Ref: 5
1976*Melanie Joyce Bell Vernon NJ, Miss America-New Jersey (1997), is born.Ref: 5
1980*Sarah Louise Catherwood Christchurch New Zealand, 4x200 meter swimmer (Olympics-96), is born.Ref: 5
1984*Adam Wylie actor (Picket Fences)Ref: 5
1125*Hendrik V Roman catholics German king/emperor (1098/1111-25), dies.Ref: 5
1153*David I king of Scotland (1124-53), dies at about 68.Ref: 5
1423*Benedict XIII [Pedro the Luna] Spanish Pope (1394-1423), dies.Ref: 5
1498*Girolamo Savonarola dictator of Florence (1494-98), tortured & executed in Florence at 45.Ref: 5
1618 Three imperial civil servants thrown out a window of Hradcany Castle in Prague.Ref: 5
1627*Luis de Góngora y Argote poet/writer, dies.Ref: 5
1648*Luis de Nain painter, dies.Ref: 5
1668*Philips Wouwerman Haarlems painter, buried.Ref: 5
1684*Adriaen Backer Amsterdams painter buried at about 48.Ref: 5
1701*Captain William Kidd is hanged at London's Execution Dock in London after he was convicted of piracy and murder.Ref: 68
1754*John Wood architect/town planner, dies.Ref: 5
1783*James Otis American lawyer, dies.Ref: 5
1785*William Woollett engraver, dies.Ref: 5
1825*Mason Weems clergyman, author; dies.Ref: 4
1834*Charles Wesley composer, dies at 76.Ref: 5
1838*John W Janssens Governor-General (Cape Colony), dies at 75.Ref: 5
1841*Franz Xaver von Baader German philosopher/theologist, dies at 76.Ref: 5
1842*José de Espronceda y Delgado Spanish revolutionary/poet, dies at 34.Ref: 5
1851*Lucas Pieter Roodbaard architect, dies at 69.Ref: 5
1860*Albert Richard Smith author/lecturer, dies.Ref: 5
1867*Archibald Alison Scottish historian, dies at 74.Ref: 5
1868*Kit Carson, one of the most famous mountain men and scouts in the West, dies at age 58.Ref: 68
1875*Johann Wilhelm Mangold composer, dies at 78.Ref: 5
1881*Leopold von Ranke historian, dies.Ref: 5
1883*Cyprian K Norwid Polish painter/poet/playwright (Wanda), dies.Ref: 5
1887*Ludwig Mathias Lindeman composer, dies at 74.Ref: 5
1891*Ignace Xavier Joseph Leybach composer, dies at 73.Ref: 5
1895*Franz E Neumann German mineralogist/physicist, dies at 96.Ref: 5
1897*Aleko Konstantinov Bulgarian writer (To Chicago & Back), dies at 34.Ref: 5
1903*Death of American Congregational missionary Henry Blodget, 78. He served 40 years in China (1854-94), and helped translate the New Testament into the colloquial Mandarin language of Peking.Ref: 5
1905*Martinus W van AA Meerbeke head-editor (Time), dies at 75.Ref: 5
1906*Henrik Ibsen, Norwegian playwright: Hedda Gabler, Peer Gynt, The Wild Duck, The Pillars of Society, An Enemy of the People; dies at age 78.Ref: 68
1908*François Coppée French poet, dies.Ref: 5
1926*Hans Koessler composer, dies at 73.Ref: 5
1928*Bomb attack on Italian embassy in Buenos Aires, 22 die.Ref: 5
1934*Bank robbers Bonnie Parker and Clyde Barrow are shot to death in a police ambush near Gibsland in Bienville Parish, Louisiana.Ref: 94
1937*John Davison Rockfeller industrialist, dies at age 97 in Ormond Beach FL.Ref: 68
1938*Philip Kleintjes republic leader, dies at 70.Ref: 5
1939*Submarine Squalis sinks off Portsmouth NH, 26 die.Ref: 5
1940*Andrej N Rimsky-Korssakov Russian musicologist/son of Nikolai, dies.Ref: 5
1940*Paul Nizan French journalist/writer (Ce Soir/Aden Arabia), dies at 35.Ref: 5
1941*Herbert Austin, Baron Austin, Enligh automotive engineer; founder and first chairman of Austin Motor Company, dies at age 74.Ref: 70
1941*Slavko Osterc composer, dies at 45.Ref: 5
1944*George Ade journalist: Chicago Morning News/Record; playwright: The Sultan of Sulu, Peggy from Paris, The College Widow; humorist: Fables in Slang; dies.Ref: 4
1945*SS Reichsführer Himmler, 44, commits suicide while imprisoned in Luneburg, Germany after being captured by Allied forces.Ref: 35
1946*William S. (Surrey) Hart actor: silent screen star: Show People, Tumbleweeds, Wagon Tracks, The Disciple; director: Narrow Trail, Return of Draw Egan, Hell’s Hinges; dies.Ref: 4
1947*C F Ramuz writer, dies at 68.Ref: 5
1949*William Hansen, American physicist; pioneered use of microwave technology, dies at age 39.Ref: 70
1952*Georg Alfred Schumann composer, dies at 85.Ref: 5
1960*Georges Claude engineer/inventor, dies.Ref: 5
1961*Joan Davis comedic actress (I Married Joan), dies at 53 of a heart attack.Ref: 5
1965*Pontoon ferry overturned on Shire River Malawi, kills 150.Ref: 5
1965*David Smith sculptor, dies.Ref: 5
1966*Ruth Gates Denton TX, actress (Aunt Jenny-Mama), dies at 79.Ref: 5
1967*Philip Coolidge actor (I Want to Live, Tingler), dies at 58.Ref: 5
1967*Sanne Sannes photographer, dies at 30.Ref: 5
1968*James Burke actor (Ellery Queen, Army Surgeon), dies at 81.Ref: 5
1968*Merle Kendrick orchestra leader (Window on the World), dies at 72.Ref: 5
1969*Diane Aubrey actress (Haunted Strangler), dies of heart attack at 79.Ref: 5
1969*Jimmy McHugh composer (Can't Give You Anything But Love), dies at 74.Ref: 5
1969*Peter Alma painter/graphic artist, dies at 83.Ref: 5
1970*Nydia Westman actress: Strange Justice, The Velvet Touch, The Ghost and Mr. Chicken, The Reluctant Astronaut; dies at age 68.Ref: 4
1973*Athena Lorde actress (Judith-One Man's Family, Fuzz, Skin Game), dies at 57.Ref: 5
1974*Kathleen Cannell writer, dies.Ref: 5
1975*(Jackie) ‘Moms’ Mabley (Loretta Mary Aiken) comedienne: Abraham, Martin & John; films: Boarding House Blues, Emperor Jones, Amazing Grace, Killer Diller, dies at age 81.Ref: 4
1979*Hubert van Doorne auto manufacturer (DAF), dies at 79.Ref: 5
1982*Louis J N Gérardin bicyclist (world champion sprint 1930), dies at 69.Ref: 5
1983*(Green River Killer) Cheryl Lee Wims, 18, is last seen. She is the 24th of 48 women Gary Ridgway admits killing. (USA Today, p 3A, 11/06/2003)Ref: 13
1983*Albert Claude Belgian biologist (Nobel 1974), dies at 84.Ref: 5
1986*Sterling Hayden (Sterling Relyea Walter) actor: The Asphalt Jungle, Dr. Strangelove, The Godfather, 9 to 5, The Blue and the Gray; dies.Ref: 4
1987*Karel Albert Flemish composer (Marieken van Nymeghen), dies at 86.Ref: 5
1988*David Schoenbrun CBS broadcast bureau head (Washington, Paris), dies at 73.Ref: 5
1991*Jean van Houte Belgian premier, dies.Ref: 5
1991*Peter T Thwaites British Brigadier-General/playwright (Love or money), dies.Ref: 5
1991*William Sinnot Scottish pop musician (Shamen), dies at 30.Ref: 5
1992*Atahualpa Yupanqui Argentine singer/composer/poet/guitarist, dies.Ref: 5
1992*Giovanni Falcone anti-mafia judge (Palermo), murdered.Ref: 5
1993*James Millhollin actor (Anston Foster-Grindl), dies at 77.Ref: 5
1994*270 pilgrims die in bustle round Mina Saudi-ArabiaRef: 5
1994*Carl Althoff German circus director, dies at 82.Ref: 5
1994*Joe Pass US jazz guitarist (The Trio), dies at 65.Ref: 5
1996*Patrick Cargill actor (Up Pompeii, Magic Christian), dies at 77Ref: 5
1996*Dorothy Hyson actress (Spare a Copper, Sing as We Go), dies at 81.Ref: 5
1996 Kronid Arkadyevich Lyubarsky human rights activist, dies at 61.Ref: 5
2001*A 5.3 earthquake kills 2 in Sichuan, China.Ref: 85
2002*"Slammin'" Sammy Snead, golfing great, winner of seven major golf championships, dies at age 89 in Hot Springs VA. (XDG, p 8A, 1/01/2003)Ref: 83
2003*Martha Scott actress: Ben-Hur, The Ten Commandments, Desperate Hours, Our Town, Sayonara, The Turning Point; dies.Ref: 4

Last Update: October 27th, 2005
© 2000-2005   Kenneth Fussichen