Ken Fussichen's History Of The Day For
October 29th

Home Click on * for the link to the relevant chronology. New Date
1586*Parliament finds Mary Stuart guilty of treason. 
1682*The founder of Pennsylvania, William Penn, lands at what is now Chester, Pennsylvania.Ref: 6
1692*(Salem Witch Trials) Phipps prohibits further arrests, releases many accused witches, and dissolves the Court of Oyer and Terminer.Ref: 16
1727*A severe earthquake occurs in New England.Ref: 5
1733*(Zenger) Governor Cosby (of New York) attempts (and fails) to rig an election for assembyman of Westchester so as to defeat the Popular Party candidate.Ref: 87
1778*(date approximate) Simon Kenton is tied to a stake for his burning. A torrential downpour comes from what was a cloudless blue sky. The Shawnee untie Kenton and begin considering whether the Great Spirit was angry with them and demonstrating his anger by repeatedly saving Kenton's life. Kenton is again scheduled for death.Ref: 58
1811 The first Ohio River steamboat leaves Pittsburgh for New Orleans.Ref: 5
1813*The Demologos, the first steam-powered warship, is launched in New York City.Ref: 2
1833*First US college fraternity to have a fraternity house founded.Ref: 5
1863*International Committee of the Red Cross is founded in Geneva, Switzerland (Nobel 1917, 1944, 1963).Ref: 5
1864*Sojourner Truth and President Lincoln meet at 8:00 AM in Washington DC and exchange warm greetings. (Claflin, Edward, "Sojourner Truth and the Struggle For Freedom", 1987, ISBN 0-8120-3919-X) 
1867*Mail packets "Rhone" & "Wye" capsizes off St Thomas Virgin Islands.Ref: 5
1889*Stanley Park dedicated in Vancouver, BC.Ref: 5
1889*New York City missions pioneer Albert B. Simpson, 46, incorporated the International Missionary Alliance. Combined in 1897 with a group formerly also organized by Simpson, it became the Christian and Missionary Alliance, one of the most missions-minded denominations in modern American Protestantism.Ref: 5
1894*First election of the Hawaiian RepublicRef: 5
1904 First intercity trucking service (Colorado City & Snyder, TX).Ref: 5
1919*The Apostolic Christian Association was incorporated in Atlanta, Georgia. It later merged with what is now the International Pentecostal Church of Christ, headquartered in London, Ohio.Ref: 5
1923*Turkey becomes a republic. After over four hundred years of rule by the Ottoman Turks, Turkey is formally declared a republic with Mustafa Kemal, later known as Kemal Ataturk, as the first president of the Republic of Turkey.Ref: 3
1929*Black Tuesday--the most catastrophic day in stock market history, the herald of the Great Depression. 16 million shares were sold at declining prices. By mid-November $30 billion of the $80 billion worth of stocks listed in September will have been wiped out.Ref: 2
1932 French liner Normandie is launched.Ref: 5
1940*Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson drew the first number 158 - in America's first peacetime military draft.Ref: 70
1942*Alaska highway completed.Ref: 5
1949*Alonzo G. Moron of the Virgin Islands becomes the first African-American president of Hampton Institute, Hampton, Virginia.Ref: 2
1956 International zone of Tangier returned to Morocco.Ref: 5
1956*NOW, the National Organization of Women founded.Ref: 10
1957*A hand grenade explodes in Israel's Knesset (Parliament).Ref: 5
1959*An avalanche occurs in Minatitlan, Mexico.Ref: 81
1964 Town of Karmiel founded in the Galilee.Ref: 5
1964*Thieves steal a jewel collection--including the world's largest sapphire, the 565-carat "Star of India," and the 100-carat DeLong ruby--from the Museum of Natural History in NY. The thieves were caught and most of the jewels recovered. Who pinched the Irish crown jewels?Ref: 2
1966*The National Organization for Women (NOW) was formed.Ref: 4
1969*The U.S. Supreme Court orders immediate desegregation, superseding the previous "with all deliberate speed" ruling.Ref: 2
1969*(Chicago 7) (through November 3rd) Because of his courtroom outbursts, Bobby Seale is ordered bound and gagged.Ref: 87
1979*On the 50th anniversary of the great stock market crash, anti-nuclear protesters tried but failed to shut down the NY Stock Exchange.Ref: 6
1982*Car maker John DeLorean is indicted for drug trafficking, later acquitted.Ref: 5
1988*2,000 US anti-abortion protesters arrested for blocking clinics.Ref: 5
1989*NYC MTA opens the 63rd street extension to the subway.Ref: 5
1992*A New York City jury acquits 17-year-old Lemrick Nelson of murdering Yankel Rosenbaum, an Australian Hasidic scholar who was killed in rioting that erupted in the Crown Heights section of Brooklyn in August 1991 following the traffic death of a black child who was hit by a Hasidic driver. (In February 1997, a jury convicted Nelson and Charles Price of violating Rosenbaum's civil rights.) (XDG, p 4A, 10/29/2002)Ref: 83
1994*Francisco Martin Duran of Colorado Springs, Colorado fired more than two dozen shots from a semiautomatic rifle at the White House while standing on Pennsylvania Avenue; Duran was later convicted of trying to assassinate President Clinton and sentenced to 40 years in prison. (TWA, 1997)Ref: 95
1996*Art stolen by the Nazis from Austrian-Jewish families during German occupation of Austria is auctioned in Vienna, Austria. Emotional bidders at the two-day auction spend record sums for the art, with proceeds aiding needy Holocaust survivors and their heirs.Ref: 3
1997*The Baghdad government barred Americans from the UN disarmament effort in Iraq, a move that outraged chief weapons inspector Richard Butler and prompted him to suspend inspections. (XDG, p 4A, 10/29/2002)Ref: 83
1998*South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission condemned both apartheid and violence committed by the African National Congress.Ref: 70
1999*Luis Alfredo Garavito confessed to murdering 140 children in Columbia, according to prosecutors. (30 Oct 1999)Ref: 9
1999*Four students at Cleveland's South High School were arrested for an alleged plot to "commit some sort of violent act", according to Cleveland police (Ref. 9, 29 Oct 1999)Ref: 9
2003*The fourth most powerful solar flare and the most powerful since 1989 (according to NASA) disrupts some airline communications but causes no power outages. (WSJ, p D5, 10/30/2003)Ref: 33
1927*Russian archaeologist Peter Kozloff apparently uncovers the tomb of Genghis Khan in the Gobi Desert, a claim still in dispute. Subotai was one of Genghis Khan's ablest lieutenants.Ref: 2
1945*The first commercially-made ballpoint pens went on sale -- at Gimbels Department Store in New York City, 57 years after it was patented. The pens sold for $12.50 and racked up a tidy profit of $500,000 in the first month!Ref: 4
1947 Flying in a specially outfitted aircraft, Vincent Schaefer of the General Electric Company drops small dry-ice pellets into cumulus clouds over a forest fire near Concord, Massachusetts, in an attempt to produce artificial precipitation and douse the flames. Shortly after Schaefer lands, a rain does indeed begin to fall over the area, but because of simultaneous rainfall from unseeded clouds nearby, it is impossible to determine how successful the experiment had been.Ref: 3
1959*The first corporation to use closed-circuit television was General Mills of Minneapolis, MN, beaming simultaneous meetings in seven cities.Ref: 4
1969*First computer-to-computer message sent across Internet (then called Arpanet) from UCLA to SRI.Ref: 10
1969*First internet crash as Charley Kline's L.O. ..gin causes overflow; fixed by Bill Duvall at Stanford.Ref: 10
1988*China announces a herbal male contraceptive.Ref: 5
1988*Soviets first scheduled shuttle launch (postponed).Ref: 5
1998*The space shuttle Discovery blasted off, returning 77-year-old U.S. Senator John Glenn to space some 36 years after he became the first American in orbit. Glenn was part of a crew of seven astronauts shepherding scientific payloads on the shuttle mission.Ref: 4
-539 -BC- Babylon falls to Cyrus the Great of Persia.Ref: 5
1915*Briand becomes premier of France, succeeding Viviani.Ref: 38
1944*Soviet troops complete the capture of Riga.Ref: 36
1952*French forces launch Operation Lorraine against Viet Minh supply bases in Indochina.Ref: 2
1956 In response to Egypt's nationalization of the Suez Canal and barring of Israeli shipping, Israel launches an attack on Egypt and its Arab allies. In a lightning attack, Israeli forces under General Moshe Dayan seize the Gaza Strip and drive through the Sinai to the east bank of the Suez Canal.Ref: 3
1889*NY Giants (NL) beat Brooklyn (AA) in world series 6 games to 3.Ref: 5
1920*Edward Barrow named Yankee general manager.Ref: 5
1930*First football game in eastern Canada played under floodlights.Ref: 5
1937*Henry Armstrong KO's Petey Sarron in the 6th round for the featherweight title in New York.Ref: 97
1942*Branch Rickey named president/GM of Brooklyn Dodgers.Ref: 5
1948*Sandy Sadler surprised the boxing world by knocking out Willie Pep in the fourth round to win the world featherweight boxing title in New York City.Ref: 4
1949*The A's trade Nellie Fox to the White Sox for catcher Joe Tipton.Ref: 1
1950*Wally Triplett avgs 735 yards on 3 kickoff returns.Ref: 5
1959*10 nation soccer league to play all games on NY Randalls Is, announced.Ref: 5
1960*Cassius Clay won his first pro bout -- over Tunney Hunsaker -- in six rounds in his hometown of Louisville, Kentucky.Ref: 4
1972*Don Cockroft of Cleveland Browns kicks 57-yard field goal.Ref: 5
1973*O.J. Simpson set two NFL records this day. The Buffalo Bills’ star running back ran 39 times for 157 yards -- and he rushed for a total of over 1,000 yards in only seven games.Ref: 4
1979*Baseball Hall of Famer Willie Mays, one of the game's most popular players, severs all ties with MLB when he accepts a public relations job with Atlantic City casino; due to the gambling aspect of the position, he had been given the ultimatum by Commissioner Bowie Kuhn.Ref: 1
1979*Billy Martin fired as Yankee manager (2nd time).Ref: 5
1984*Golfing great Tom Watson won his sixth PGA Player of the Year title; the most won by any golfer since the award was first given in 1948. Jack Nicklaus had accumulated five of those titles.Ref: 4
1984*Orlando Pizzolato (2:14:53) & Greta Weitz (2:29:30) win NY Marathon.Ref: 5
1985*Cardinal pitcher Joaquin Andujar is suspended for the first ten games of next season as a result of bumping Don Denkinger twice during his Game 7 dispute with the home plate ump over ball and strikes calls.Ref: 1
1987*Thomas Hearns wins unprecidented 4th different weight boxing title.Ref: 5
1987*Jorge Vaca of Guadalajara, Mexico stops Lloyd Honeyghan in the 8th round for the welterweight boxing championship at Wembly.Ref: 97
1987*"Prince" Charles Williams of Ohio stops Bobby Czyz for the IBF light-heavyweight boxing title.Ref: 97
1988*Jim Elliott (US) begins 24-hr paced outdoor race for 548.9 mi.Ref: 5
1991*Buck Showalter replaces Stump Merrill as the Yankee manager.Ref: 1
1997*Boxer Mike Tyson broke a rib and punctured a lung on his right side when his motorcycle skidded off a Connecticut highway after hitting a patch of sand.Ref: 98
2001*Commissioner Bud Selig says major league baseball is considering eliminating two teams could by the start of next season. Contraction would include the Montreal Expos and either the Minnesota Twins or the Florida Marlins.Ref: 1
2001*Matt Williams becomes the first player in World Series history to hit home runs with three different teams. He homered in the Fall Classic for the Indians in 1997 and the Giants in 1989.Ref: 1
2002*Bringing the total to seven this month, three new managers are named including Ned Yost (Brewers), Ken Macha (A's) and Eric Wedge (Indians). Being younger than two of his players (Ellis Burks and Omar Vizquel), the Tribe's skipper, at the age of 34, becomes youngest manager in the major leagues.Ref: 1
1787*Mozert's opera "Don Giovanni" opens in Prague.Ref: 2
1923*"Runnin' Wild" (introducing the Charleston) opens on Broadway.Ref: 5
1924*"Dixie to Broadway," opens at Broadhurst Theater.Ref: 5
1930*The tune, It Must Be True, was recorded on Victor by Bing Crosby, who sang with Gus Arnheim and his orchestra.Ref: 4
1939*Golden Gate International Exposition closes (1st closure).Ref: 5
1952*Fredrick Knott's "Dial M For Murder"starts 552 performance run on Broadway.Ref: 10
1956*John Cameron Swayze and The Camel News Caravan were replaced by Chet Huntley and David Brinkley on NBC-TV.Ref: 4
1961*The top, pop song on the charts belonged to Dion (DiMucci). Runaround Sue was in its second week at the tiptop of the top-tune tabulation (it was in the top 40 for three months).Ref: 4
1963*"Meet the Beatles" booklet is published.Ref: 5
1967*The counter-culture musical "Hair" opened off-Broadway.Ref: 70
1970*Neil Diamond received a nice package: a gold record for the hit, Cracklin’ Rosie.Ref: 4
1981*Loretta Lynn received a gold record for her album, Greatest Hits, Vol. 2.Ref: 4
1982*Paul McCartney & Michael Jackson release "The Girl is Mine".Ref: 5
1983*After four weeks at #1 on the pop music charts, Bonnie Tyler’s Total Eclipse of the Heart slipped to #2 -- replaced by Islands in the Stream by Kenny Rogers and Dolly Parton.Ref: 4
1983*Pink Floyd’s Dark Side of the Moon became the longest-charting album of all time when it logged its 491st week on the Billboard Top 200 album chart. The previous champ had been Johnny’s Greatest Hits, by Johnny Mathis (490 weeks: April 1958-July 1968). Dark Side of the Moon stayed on the chart for 724 consecutive weeks (740 weeks altogether) and didn’t drop off until July 13, 1988. Michael Jackson’s Thriller sold the most copies ever -- 40 million -- but it spent ‘only’ 122 weeks on the album chart.Ref: 4
1740*James Boswell Scotland, Samuel Johnson's biographer, is born.Ref: 5
1745*William Hayley, English poet, biographer, patron of the arts, is born.Ref: 70
1759 John Keats is born.Ref: 10
1815*Daniel Decatur Emmett composer: Dixie [Dixie’s Land]; is born.Ref: 4
1828*Thomas Francis Bayard, American statesman, diplomat and lawyer, is born.Ref: 70
1859*Charles Ebbets, namesake and builder of Ebbets Field, Brooklyn, is born.Ref: 5
1869*Birth of E. O. Sellers, American Baptist musician. At various times the song evangelist for R.A. Torrey, Gipsy Smith, A.C. Dixon and J. Wilbur Chapman, Sellers is remembered today for his two original hymns: "Thy Word Have I Hid in My Heart" and "Wonderful, Wonderful Jesus".Ref: 5
1870*Birth of Juji Nakada, Japanese Christian evangelist. In 1901 he influenced Charles and Lettie Cowman (authors of "Streams in the Desert") to come to Japan, where in 1910 they incorporated the Oriental Missions Society.Ref: 5
1873*Guillermo Valencia Colombia, poet/translator/statesman, is born.Ref: 5
1875*Marie queen consort of Ferdinand I of Romania (1914-27), is born.Ref: 5
1879*Franz Von Papen, German chancellor (1932), is born.Ref: 70
1882*Jean Giraudoux, French dramatist, novelist and diplomat, famous for his book Tiger at the Gates, is born.Ref: 2
1884*Fred Lazarus Jr., American merchandiser, is born.Ref: 70
1891*Fanny Brice singing comedienne (Ziegeld Follies, Baby Snooks), is born.Ref: 5
1891*(Robert) Douglass Montgomery actor: Little Women, Harmony Lane; is born.Ref: 4
1897*Joseph G. Goebbels, German Nazi Propaganda Minister who died of suicide in Hitler's bunker, is born.Ref: 2
1897*Hope Emerson Hawarden Iowa, actress (I Married Joan, Peter Gunn), is born.Ref: 5
1899*Akim Tamiroff actor: For Whom the Bell Tolls, Anastasia, The Bridge of San Luis Rey, Hotel Paradiso, Lord Jim, The Story of Louis Pasteur; is born.Ref: 4
1905*Henry Green, novelist (Living, Party Going), is born.Ref: 2
1906*Fredric Brown American writer (US Army in Transition), is born.Ref: 5
1907*(Robert) Douglass Montgomery actor: Little Women, Harmony Lane; is born.Ref: 4
1910*Alfred J Ayer England, Neopositivist philosopher/logician, is born.Ref: 5
1917*Henry Carlsson Sweden, soccer (Olympic-gold-1948), is born.Ref: 5
1921*William Henry Mauldin US, political cartoonist who created G.I. Joe and Willie (Pulitzer-1945, 59), is born.Ref: 5
1921*Ed Kemmer Reading Pa, actor (Buzz Corey-Space Patrol), is born.Ref: 5
1922*Neal Hefti composer: TV’s Batman theme, The Odd Couple theme; score: Sex and the Single Girl; Neal Hefti and His Orchestra: The Kate Smith Show, is born in Hastings NE.Ref: 4
1925*Zoot (John Haley) Sims musician: tenor/alto sax: groups: Benny Goodman Band, Woody Herman Orchestra, Stan Kenton, Gerry Mulligan, Birdland All-Stars, Jazz at Carnegie Hall; died Mar 23, 1985Ref: 4
1925*Geraldine Brooks NYC, actress (Faraday & Co, Dumplings, Act of Murder), is born.Ref: 5
1926*Jon(athan Stewart) Vickers, Prince Albert, Canada, tenor, is born.Ref: 5
1932*Dick Garmaker basketball: Univ. of Minnesota; NBA: Minneapolis Lakers, is born.Ref: 4
1934*Robert E Hughes NYC, orch leader (Rich Little Show), is born.Ref: 5
1937*Sonny Osborne musician: 5-string banjo, singer: baritone: group: Osborne Brothers, is born.Ref: 4
1937*Michael Ponti Freiburg Germany, pianist (Boston Competition 1964), is born.Ref: 5
1938*Ralph Bakshi writer, director, animator: Hey Good Lookin’, Heavy Traffic, Fritz the Cat, Wizards, Streetfight; director, animator: The Lord of the Rings; writer, director: Fire and Ice; director: Cool World, is born.Ref: 4
1939*Pete (Peter Gerard) Richert baseball: pitcher: LA Dodgers, Washington Senators [all-star: 1965, 1966], Baltimore Orioles [World Series: 1969, 1970, 1971], Philadelphia Phillies, SL Cardinals, is born.Ref: 4
1941*Andy Russell football: Pittsburgh Steelers linebacker: Super Bowl IX, X, is born.Ref: 4
1944*Denny Laine (Brian Hines) musician: guitar, singer: groups: The Moody Blues: Go Now; Wings: My Love, Live & Let Die, Helen Wheels, Jet, Band on the Run, is born.Ref: 4
1945*Melba Moore singer: You Stepped into My Life; actress: The Melba Moore-Clifton Davis Show, is born.Ref: 4
1946*Peter Green musician: guitar: group: Fleetwood Mac: Man of the World; solo: LP: The End of the Game, is born.Ref: 4
1947*Richard Dreyfuss Academy Award-winning actor: The Goodbye Girl [1977]; Valley of the Dolls, Jaws, Mr. Holland’s Opus, Close Encounters of the Third Kind, Lost in Yonkers, Nuts, American Graffiti, Down and Out in Beverly Hills, The Graduate, Postcards from the Edge, In Mama’s House, Karen, The Education of Max Bickford; TV narrator: American Chronicles, is born in Brooklyn NY.Ref: 4
1948*Kate Jackson actress: Charlie’s Angels, The Rookies, Scarecrow and Mrs. King, Baby Boom, Killer Bees, Satan’s School for Girls, Loverboy, is born in Birmingham AL.Ref: 4
1950*Ed Dyck hockey: NHL: Vancouver Canucks, is born.Ref: 4
1953*Denis Potvin hockey: NHL: NY Islanders: shares record for most goals scored by a defenseman in a playoff game [3]: Islanders vs. Edmonton Oilers [4/17/1981], is born.Ref: 4
1955*Kevin Dubrow singer: group: Quiet Riot: Cum on Feel the Noize, Bang Your Head [Metal Health], Skweeze Me Pleeze Me, is born.Ref: 4
1955*John (Thomas) Smith football: NE Patriots, is born.Ref: 4
1959*Jesse (Lee) Barfield baseball: Toronto Blue Jays [all-star: 1986/Gold Glove: 1986, 1987], NY Yankees, is born.Ref: 4
1960*Michael Carter football: San Francisco 49ers tackle: Super Bowl XIX, XXIII, XXIV, is born.Ref: 4
1960*Finola Hughes actress (Anna-General Hospital, Staying Alive), is born.Ref: 5
1961*Randy (Steven Randall) Jackson, singer in The Jackson Five, is born.Ref: 3
1965*Steven Sweet Wadsworth Ohio, heavy metal artist (Warrant-Cherry Pie), is born.Ref: 5
1967*Joely Fisher actress: I’ll Do Anything, The Mask, In the Loop, Inspector Gadget, Nostradamus, Normal, Ohio, Danny, is born.Ref: 4
1969*Serenity (Wilde) actress: X-rated films: is born.Ref: 4
1971*Winona Ryder (Winona Laura Horowitz) actress: Little Women, Bram Stoker’s Dracula, The Age of Innocence, Beetlejuice, Edward Scissorhands, Lucas, is born in MN.Ref: 4
1618*Sir Walter Raleigh is beheaded. After the death of Queen Elizabeth, Raleigh's enemies spread rumors that he was opposed the accession of King James.Ref: 2
1795*James Boswell author: biographer: Life of Samuel Johnson; dies.Ref: 4
1877*Nathan Bedford Forrest, the brilliant and notorious Confederate Civil War general , dies.Ref: 70
1885*George Brinton McClellan, American general and ran against Abraham Lincoln for president in 1864, dies at age 58.Ref: 70
1901*Leon Czolgosz is electrocuted for the assassination of President McKinley. Czolgosz, an anarchist, shot McKinley on September 6 during a public reception at the Temple of Music in Buffalo, N.Y. Despite early hopes of recovery, McKinley died September 14, in Buffalo.Ref: 2
1911*Joseph Pulitzer, American newspaperman, dies in Charleston, SC.Ref: 68
1933*George Luks, American painter, dies at age 66.Ref: 70
1942*16,000 Jews killed in Pinsk Russia.Ref: 5
1947*Former first lady Frances Cleveland Preston died in Baltimore at age 83.Ref: 68
1950*King Gustav V of Sweden dies.Ref: 17
1951*Robert Aitken, American astronomer (Binary Stars), dies at age 86.Ref: 70
1957*Louis B Mayer, Russian-born American movie executive, dies at age 72.Ref: 70
1960*Chartered C46 carrying Cal State's football team crashes, kills 16.Ref: 5
1963*Adolphe Menjou actor (Front Page, Star is Born), dies at 73.Ref: 5
1971*Musician Duane Allman (of the Allman Brothers Band) is killed in motorcycle crash in Macon GA. He was 24 years old.Ref: 4
1972*Palestinian guerrillas kill an airport employee and hijack a plane, carrying 27 passengers, to Cuba. They force West Germany to release 3 terrorists who were involved in the Munich Massacre.Ref: 2
1975*The Yorkshire Ripper Peter Sutcliffer kills his first victim.Ref: 5
1975*John Scott Trotter orch leader (George Gobel Show), dies at 67.Ref: 5
1981*William O Walker publisher of the Cleveland Call Post, dies at 85.Ref: 5
1987*Woody (Woodrow Charles) Herman, bandleader/composer (Thundering Herds), dies at 74.Ref: 5
1987*Kamal El Mallakh dies at 57.Ref: 5
1990*William French Smith attorney general (1980), dies at 73 from cancerRef: 5
1990*30 die in a (5.7) earthquake in AlgeriaRef: 5
1995*Terry Southern, American novelist and screenwriter, dies at age 71.Ref: 70
1995*World's worst subway accident at Baku, Azerbaijan 337 killed, 200 injured from fire, deadly gas.Ref: 10
1996*Ewell Blackwell ‘The Whip’: baseball: pitcher: Cincinnati Reds [all-star: 1946-1951], NY Yankees [World Series: 1952], KS City Athletics; dies.Ref: 4
1998*Hurricane Mitch (Oct 22-Nov 4, 1998), one of the strongest Atlantic storms ever, made landfall, slamming into Honduras, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador and other Central American countries. The real story was not the wind but the rain. Slow movement of the storm caused heavy rain, resulting in widespread flooding and mudslides. Over 10,000 people were killed, another 10,000 were missing, and some two million people were affected in some way by the storm.Ref: 4
2001*A gunman killed four people in Tours, France. (XDG, p 4A, 10/29/2002)Ref: 83

Last Update: October 27th, 2005
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